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Archive for March, 2011

Mark Ryan, British musician (Adam and the Ants) died he was , 51.

Mark Ryan was a British guitarist who played in different punk bands during the late 1970s died he was , 51.

(2 March 1959 – 31 January 2011)

He was born in Tottenham, London,[1][4] to an Irish Catholic family, his father was a university lecturer and his mother was trained as a nurse and midwife. Ryan left school at sixteen, working in factories and dedicating to music.[3]

In 1977, after being in a number of experimental punk bands, he joined Adam and the Ants, replacing Lester Square (who was later to form The Monochrome Set), to complete the line-up who debuted live at the ICA restaurant in May, recording Plastic Surgery and a number of demos[5] with the band. After appearing with the band in the Derek Jarman movie Jubilee (1977 film) (released July 5, 1977) Ryan was fired in October of the same year.[6] Subsequently, he joined The Photons, and was involved with The Moors Murderers. The vocalist in both bands was Steve Strange, who later became the singer for Visage. He also was in King, alongside The Damned‘s Captain Sensible.[7][8]
From 1985-1989 Ryan attended the experimental Dartington College of Arts, earning a Bachelors degree in music in 1989. He turned his interest in performance to the theatre and began a successful career as a writer for the stage based in Cardiff, Wales. He is the author of The Strange Case Of Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde As Told To Carl Jung By An Inmate Of Broadmoor Asylum, first produced in 1998.
Since the 1990s to his last days, he lived in Heath, Cardiff, Wales.[4]

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Eunice Sanborn, American supercentenarian, world’s oldest living person at time of her death was , 114.

Eunice Sanborn was an American supercentenarian who was the oldest verified living person in the world at the time of her death at age 114 years, 195 days. She became the recognized titleholder upon the death of Eugénie Blanchard on November 4, 2010.[2][3] She became one of the 50 verified longest lived people in the United States on March 2, 2010, and one of the 40 undisputed oldest people on January 27, 2011.
Sanborn’s family claimed that the Census Bureau erroneously recorded her birth year, and that she was born on July 20, 1895, which would have made her 115 years, 195 days at the time of her death.[4]

(July 20, 1896 – January 31, 2011)[1]


Sanborn was born Eunice Allen Lyons in Lake Charles, Louisiana, to Augustus and Varina Lyons. Her parents were of German and Irish heritage. Eunice Lyons first married in November 1913. Her first husband, Joe Orchin and the father of her daughter, was killed in an accident. In 1937, along with her second husband, Wesley Garrett, she moved to Texas. While in Texas, she was part-founder of Love’s Lookout.[5] The two were the first to build a concrete bottom pool in Cherokee County at that time.[5] Her daughter Dorothy, who died in 2005 aged 90, along with her second husband, managed to keep the business going for a long period of time. After he died, Eunice married Grant Sanborn. He died in 1979. Sanborn lived in Jacksonville, Texas,[5] until her death on January 31, 2011.[1]
Although she never worked outside the home, Sanborn kept busy with community activities her entire life. She was an active member of First Baptist Church of Jacksonville and sang in the choir there for many years.[1]
Longtime friend David French — who knew Sanborn since the age of five — and his wife Rena provided 24-hour care so Sanborn could remain in her home.[1]

Longevity records

  • On April 6, 2010, Neva Morris died, and Sanborn (aged 113 years, 260 days) became the oldest verified living person in the United States.
  • On November 4, 2010, Eugénie Blanchard died, and Sanborn (aged 114 years, 107 days) became the oldest verified living person in the world.
  • On November 6, 2010, Sanborn (aged 114 years, 109 days) surpassed Bettie Chatmon to become the oldest verified person from the state of Louisiana.
  • On January 16, 2011, Eunice Sanborn (aged 114 years, 180 days) became one of the 50 verified oldest people.
  • On January 31, 2011, Eunice Sanborn (aged 114 years, 195 days) died as the oldest verified living person at the time and 43rd oldest person in history.

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Charles Sellier, American film and television producer (The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams).died he was , 67

Charles Edward Sellier, Jr.  was an American television producer, screenwriter, novelist and director, best known for creating the American book and television series, The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams .died he was , 67.[1] He also wrote and produced more than thirty films and 230 television shows during his career, which spanned four decades.[2]

(November 19, 1943 – January 31, 2011)

Charles Sellier was born in Pascagoula, Mississippi, on November 9, 1943.[3][4] He was the only son of born to his parents, Charles and Gladys Carson Sellier.[3] His father worked as a shipping clerk.[3] Sellier was born as a Cajun Catholic, later converting to Mormonism and then to evangelical Christianity.[3]
The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams, which aired on NBC during the 1978-1979 television season, depicted a character, portrayed by actor Dan Haggerty, who escapes a bounty hunter and rescues a bear cub who becomes his constant companion in the series.[1] Sellier had first introduced the character in his 1972 novel, The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams, loosely based on the real-life 19th century mountain man, James “Grizzly” Adams.[2] The series was produced by Sunn Classic Pictures, a production company based in Park City, Utah, which Sellier had founded.[2] Sellier also wrote many of the episodes in the series.[2] The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams ran for one season, but was concluded in the 1982 television movie, The Capture of Grizzly Adams, in which Dan Haggerty reprised his role.[2]
Additionally, Sellier wrote and produced more than 230 television shows and thirty feature films during his career.[2] Eleven of Sellier’s feature films are included in the top 100 highest-grossing independent films in history, with six of those films ranking in the top twenty-five.[2]
Sellier produced numerous films and television shows, often with Christian themes aimed at family-friendly audiences.[1] His production credits included Mark Twain’s America, The Lincoln Conspiracy, In Search of Noah’s Ark and Breaking the Da Vinci Code.[1][5] In 1980, Sellier was nominated for an Emmy Award for his work on the made-for-television movie, The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, which starred Jeff Goldblum as Ichabod Crane.[2][6] Sellier was a member of the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences, the Writers Guild of America and National Religious Broadcasters Association.[2]
Sellier was the CEO of Grizzly Adams Prods. at the time of death in 2011.[2] The company markets family-friendly and faith based documentaries, films and television shows.[2] Selliers had recently reached an agreement with Passmorelab of San Diego to convert approximately 500 films and televisions show to 3D for Blu-ray 3D DVDs and 3D television broadcasting.[2]
Sellier died unexpectedly at his home in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, on January 31, 2011, at the age of 67.[1][3] He was survived by his wife, Julie Magnuson, whom he had been married for twenty-five years, and a son, William.[3]

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Michael Tolan, American actor (The Greatest Story Ever Told, The Mary Tyler Moore Show), died from heart disease and renal failure he was , 85

Michael Tolan was an American actor died from heart disease and renal failure he was , 85.

(November 27, 1925 – January 31, 2011)

Life and career

Tolan was born Seymour Tuchow in Detroit, Michigan. He graduated from Wayne State University in Detroit and studied under Stella Adler and at Stanford University.[1] He appeared primarily in stage roles in his early career, with only minor parts in films of the early 1950s. His stage roles include Romanoff and Juliet and Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?, his Broadway debut. His first film role was in The Enforcer; he also had roles in Fort Worth, The Greatest Story Ever Told, and Presumed Innocent.[1]
He acted mostly on television from the mid-1950s on, including an appearance on the 1960 CBS summer series, Diagnosis: Unknown, a role in The Doctors and the Nurses, and a continuing role as Jordan Boyle on “The Senator” segments of the anthology umbrella TV series The Bold Ones (1970–71). He had a recurring role on three episodes of The Mary Tyler Moore Show, and made guest appearances on such television series as Kojak, McMillan and Wife, and Law and Order. His last known television appearance was on an episode of Murder, She Wrote in 1994.
Tolan appeared in the Bob Fosse film All That Jazz (1979) as lead character Joe Gideon’s cardiologist, Dr. Ballinger.
Tolan also helped found the American Place Theatre, of which he wrote:

Personal life

Tolan had two marriages, both of which ended in divorce; at the time of his death, he was partnered with Donna Peck, with whom he lived in Ancram, New York.[1] He had previously married actress Rosemary Forsyth on June 28, 1966. The couple had one child and divorced in 1975

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Doc Williams, American country music performer died he was , 96.

Doc Williams  was an influential American country music band leader and vocalist died he was , 96..[1]

(June 26, 1914 – January 31, 2011)

Born as Andrew John Smik, Jr. in Cleveland, Ohio,[1] and raised in Kittanning, Pennsylvania, he got his professional start playing with the Kansas Clodhoppers during the early 1930s. Doc eventually formed his own band, Doc Williams and the Border Riders. The group went on the air on WWVA Wheeling in 1937; soon, with the addition of comedian Froggie Cortez and cowboy crooner, Big Slim the Lone Cowboy, and became one of the station’s most popular attractions.[citation needed]
In 1939, Williams married Jessie Wanda Crupe, a singer who soon adopted the stage name Chickie Williams (February 13, 1919 – November 18, 2007). The Williams’ were popular performers. Although the couple and their band the Border Riders recorded, performed live and appeared on the radio for over five decades, they never had a national hit. Doc Williams founded Wheeling Records in 1947 and through it released all of his and his wife’s albums; occasionally, they sang together, and sometimes with their three daughters. Among his best-known songs are “Willie Roy the Crippled Boy” and “My Old Brown Coat And Me”.[1]
Williams died on January 31, 2011 in Wheeling, West Virginia, aged 96.[2]

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John Barry, British film score composer (From Russia with Love, Chaplin, Out of Africa), five-time Academy Winner died he was , 77

John Barry Prendergast, OBE was an English film score composer died he was , 77. He was best known for composing 11 James Bond soundtracks and was hugely influential on the musical style of the 007 series, along with the general feeling of the films.
In a career spanning almost 50 years, Barry received numerous awards for his work, including five Academy Awards; two for Born Free, and one each for The Lion in Winter (for which he also won a BAFTA Award), Out of Africa and Dances with Wolves (for which he also won a Grammy Award) and the theme of Somewhere in Time (1980) (Golden Globe Award nomination for Best Original Score – Motion Picture).[1]

(3 November 1933 – 30 January 2011)


Barry was born John Barry Prendergast, in York, England and was the son of a musically talented mother and a charismatic Irish father.[2][3] He was raised in and around cinemas in Northern England.[4]
His father, Jack Xavier Prendergast, from Cork, was a projectionist during the silent movie era who ended up owning a chain of movie theaters across northern England.[4] Often, while watching a film, Barry would note with pen and paper, what worked or what did not.[3]
His childhood background in movies influenced Barry’s music interests.[2]

Although originally a classical pianist, Barry also learned the trumpet and grew interested in composing and arranging music. During his National Service in Cyprus, he began performing as a musician. After taking a correspondence course (with jazz composer Bill Russo) and working as an arranger for the Jack Parnell and Ted Heath’s Orchestra[5] he formed his own band in 1957, The John Barry Seven,[6] with whom he had some hit records, including “Hit and Miss”, the theme tune he composed for the BBC’s Juke Box Jury programme, a cover of the Ventures‘ “Walk Don’t Run“, and a cover of the theme for the United Artists Western The Magnificent Seven. The career breakthrough for Barry was the BBC television series Drumbeat, when he appeared with The John Barry Seven and arranged for many of the singers, including Adam Faith; he also composed songs (along with Les Vandyke) and scores for films in which Faith was featured. When Faith made his first film, Beat Girl, in 1960, Barry composed, arranged and conducted the score, his first. His music was later released as the first soundtrack album on LP in the UK.[7] Barry also composed the music for another Faith film, Never Let Go, orchestrated the score for Mix Me a Person, and composed, arranged and conducted the score for The Amorous Prawn.

Barry was employed by the EMI record company from 1959 until 1962 arranging orchestral accompaniment for the company’s recording artists. From 1962, Barry transferred to Ember Records where he produced albums as well as arranging them.[8]
These achievements caught the attention of the producers of a new film called Dr. No who were dissatisfied with a theme for James Bond given to them by Monty Norman. Barry was hired and the result was one of the most famous signature tunes in film history, the “James Bond Theme“. (Credit goes to Monty Norman, see below.) When the producers of the Bond series engaged Lionel Bart to score the next James Bond film From Russia with Love, they discovered that Bart could neither read nor write music. Though Bart wrote a title song for the film, the producers remembered Barry’s arrangement of the James Bond Theme and his composing and arranging for several films with Adam Faith. Lionel Bart also recommended Barry to producer Stanley Baker for his film Zulu.[9] Bart and Barry worked together in the film Man in the Middle.
This was the turning point for Barry, and he went on to become one of the most celebrated film composers, winning five Academy Awards and four Grammy Awards, with scores for, among others, The Lion in Winter, Midnight Cowboy, Born Free, and Somewhere in Time.[1]
Barry was often cited as having had a distinct style which concentrated on lush strings and extensive use of brass. However he was also an innovator, being one of the first to employ synthesizers in a film score (On Her Majesty’s Secret Service), and to make wide use of pop artists and songs in Midnight Cowboy. Because Barry provided not just the main title theme but the complete soundtrack score, his music often enhanced the critical reception of a film, notably in Midnight Cowboy, King Kong, Out of Africa, and Dances with Wolves.
One of Barry’s best known compositions is the theme for the 1971 TV series The Persuaders!, also known as “The Unlucky Heroes”, in which Tony Curtis and Roger Moore were paired as rich playboys solving crimes. The score for the series was composed by Ken Thorne. The theme went on to be a hit single in some European countries and has been re-released on collections of 1970s disco hits. The instrumental recording features Moog synthesizers. Barry also wrote the scores to a number of musicals, including Passion Flower Hotel (lyrics by Trevor Peacock), the successful West End show Billy (lyrics by Don Black) and two major Broadway flops, The Little Prince and the Aviator and Lolita, My Love, the latter with Alan Jay Lerner as lyricist.
Barry’s work began to be sampled in the 1990s by artists such as Dr. Dre and Wu-Tang Clan, with his “James Bond Theme” being sampled by performers as diverse as Bonobo, Gang Starr and Junior Reid. Fatboy Slim used the opening guitars from “Beat Girl (Main Title)” for “Rockafeller Skank” from his 1998 album, You’ve Come A Long Way, Baby. The Sneaker Pimps also sampled “Golden Girl” on their 1996 single “6 Underground“. Additionally, “You Only Live Twice” was heavily sampled on “Millennium” from Robbie Williams‘ second album, I’ve Been Expecting You.[10]
In 2002, Barry was named an Honorary Freeman of the City of York.[11]
During 2006, Barry was the executive producer on an album entitled Here’s to the Heroes by the Australian ensemble The Ten Tenors. The album features a number of songs Barry wrote in collaboration with his lyricist friend, Don Black. Barry and Black also composed one of the songs on Shirley Bassey‘s 2009 album, The Performance. The song entitled, “Our Time is Now”, is the first written by the duo for Bassey since “Diamonds Are Forever“.[12]

James Bond series

After the success of Dr. No, Barry scored eleven of the next 14 James Bond films (but with Monty Norman continually credited as the composer of the “James Bond Theme“).[13]

In his tenure with the film series, Barry’s music, variously brassy and moody, appealed to film aficionados. For From Russia With Love he composed “007”, an alternative James Bond signature theme, which is featured in four other Bond films (Thunderball, You Only Live Twice, Diamonds Are Forever, Moonraker). The theme “Stalking”, for the teaser sequence of From Russia With Love, was covered by colleague Marvin Hamlisch for The Spy Who Loved Me (1977). (The music and lyrics for From Russia With Love’s title song were written by Lionel Bart, whose musical theatre credits included Oliver!). Barry also (indirectly) contributed to the soundtrack of the 1967 spoof version of Casino Royale: his Born Free theme appears briefly in the opening sequence.
In Goldfinger, he perfected the “Bond sound”, a heady mixture of brass, jazz and sensuous melodies. There is even an element of Barry’s jazz roots in the big-band track “Into Miami”, which follows the title credits and accompanies the film’s iconic image of the camera lens zooming toward the Fontainebleau Hotel in Miami Beach.
As Barry matured, the Bond scores concentrated more on lush melodies, as in Moonraker and Octopussy. Barry’s score for A View to a Kill was traditional, but his collaboration with Duran Duran for the title song was contemporary and one of the most successful Bond themes to date, reaching number one in the United States and number two in the UK Singles Chart. Both A View to a Kill and the Living Daylights theme by a-ha blended the pop music style of the artists with Barry’s orchestration. In 2006, a-ha’s Pal Waaktaar complimented Barry’s contributions “I loved the stuff he added to the track, I mean it gave it this really cool string arrangement. That’s when for me it started to sound like a Bond thing”.[14]
Barry’s last score for the Bond series was 1987’s The Living Daylights, Dalton’s first film in the series with Barry making a cameo appearance as a composer in the film. Barry was intended to score Licence to Kill but was recovering from throat surgery at the time and it was considered unsafe to fly him to London to complete the score. The score was completed by Michael Kamen.[15]
David Arnold, a British composer, saw the result of two years’ work in 1997 with the release of Shaken and Stirred: The David Arnold James Bond Project, an album of new versions of the themes from various James Bond films. Arnold thanks Barry in the sleeve notes, referring to him as “the Guvnor”. Almost all of the tracks were John Barry compositions, and the revision of his work met with his approval – he contacted Barbara Broccoli, producer of the upcoming Tomorrow Never Dies, to recommend Arnold as the film’s composer.[16] Arnold also went on to score the subsequent Bond films: The World Is Not Enough, Die Another Day, Casino Royale and Quantum of Solace.
Sole compositional credit for the “James Bond Theme” is attributed to Monty Norman, who was contracted as composer for Dr. No. Some 30 years later, in 2001, the disputed authorship of the theme was examined legally in the High Court in London after Norman sued The Sunday Times for publishing an article in 1997 in which Barry was named as the true composer; Barry testified for the defense.[17][18]
In court, Barry declared he had been handed a musical manuscript of a work by Norman (meant to become the theme) and that he was to arrange it musically, and that he composed additional music and arranged the “James Bond Theme”. The court was also told that Norman received sole credit because of his prior contract with the producers. Barry said that a deal was struck whereby he would receive a flat fee of £250 and Norman would receive the songwriting credit.[19] Barry said that he had accepted the deal with United Artists Head of Music Noel Rogers because it would help his career. Despite these claims the jury ruled unanimously in favour of Norman.[19]
On 7 September 2006, John Barry publicly defended his authorship of the theme on the Steve Wright show on BBC Radio 2.[20]

Personal life

Barry was educated at St Peter’s School, York, and also received composition lessons from Francis Jackson, Organist of York Minster.[2]
Barry moved to California in 1970 as a tax exile, with a British judge accusing him of emigrating to avoid paying £134,000 due the Inland Revenue.[5] The matter was resolved in the late 1980s and Barry was able to return to the UK.[5] He subsequently lived for many years in the United States, mainly in Oyster Bay, New York, on Long Island, from 1980.[2]
Barry suffered a rupture of the oesophagus in 1988, following a toxic reaction to a health tonic he had consumed. The incident rendered him unable to work for two years and left him vulnerable to pneumonia.[21]
Barry was married four times. His first three marriages, to Barbara Pickard (1959–1963); Jane Birkin (1965–1968); and Jane Sidey (1969–1971), all ended in divorce.[5] He was married to Laurie from 1976[5] until his death. The couple had a son, Jonpatrick. Barry had three daughters from previous liaisons: Susie, Sian and Kate.[2]
Barry died of a heart attack on 30 January 2011 at his Oyster Bay home aged 77 years.[22][23] He is survived by Laurie, his wife of 33 years, and by his four children and five grandchildren. There was a private funeral service, and a memorial service is expected to be held later in 2011 in the United Kingdom.[22][24]

Awards and nominations

Five Academy Awards

Academy Award nominations

Grammy Award

  • 1969 Best Instrumental Theme for Midnight Cowboy[26]
  • 1985 Best Jazz Instrumental Performance, Big Band for The Cotton Club[26]
  • 1986 Best Instrumental Composition for Out of Africa[26]
  • 1991 Best Instrumental Composition Written For A Motion Picture Or For Television for Dances with Wolves[26]


  • 1968 Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music for The Lion in Winter[27]

BAFTA Fellowship Award

BAFTA nominations

  • 1986 Best Score for Out of Africa[29]
  • 1991 Best Original Score for Dances with Wolves[30]

Emmy Award nominations

  • 1964 Outstanding Achievement in Composing Original Music for Television for Elizabeth Taylor in London (a 1963 television special)[31]
  • 1977 Outstanding Achievement in Music Composition for a Special (Dramatic Underscore) for Eleanor and Franklin: The White House Years[31]

Max Steiner Lifetime Achievement Award (presented by the City of Vienna)

Lifetime Achievement Award from World Soundtrack Academy (presented at the Ghent Film Festival)

  • 2010

Barry was inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1998.[13]
The American Film Institute ranked Barry’s score for Out of Africa #15 on their list of the greatest film scores. His scores for the following films were also nominated:


Film scores

Bond films

Barry worked on the soundtracks for the following Bond films:


Television themes

Other works

Hit singles

(Excludes co-composed hits, e.g. Duran Duran‘s A View to a Kill)

  • “Hit And Miss” as The John Barry Seven plus Four, UK#10 (first charted 1960)
  • “Beat For Beatniks” as The John Barry Orchestra, UK#40 (1960)
  • “Never Let Go” as The John Barry Orchestra, UK#49 (1960)
  • “Blueberry Hill” as The John Barry Orchestra, UK#34 (1960)
  • “Walk Don’t Run” as The John Barry Seven, UK#11 (1960)
  • “Black Stockings” as The John Barry Seven, UK#27 (1960)
  • The Magnificent Seven” as The John Barry Seven, UK#45 (1961)
  • “Cutty Sark” as The John Barry Seven, UK#35 (1962)
  • “The James Bond Theme” as The John Barry Orchestra, UK#13 (1962)
  • “From Russia With Love” as The John Barry Orchestra, UK#39 (1963)
  • “Theme From ‘The Persuaders'” as John Barry, UK#13 (1971)

The 4 highest-charting hits all spent more than 10 weeks in the UK top 50.

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Ajahn Maha Bua, Thai Buddhist monk died he was , 97.

MahaBuaSitting.jpgPhra Thamma Wisutthi Mongkhon (Bua Yannasampanno) or Pra Dharma Visuthi Mongkol (Bua Ñanasampanno)), commonly known as Ajahn Maha Bua or in Thai Luang Ta Maha Buawas a Thai Buddhist monk died he was , 97. Bua is one of the best known Thai Buddhist monks of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. He was widely regarded as an Arahant — a living Buddhist saint. He was a disciple of the esteemed forest master Ajahn Mun Bhuridatta, and was himself considered a master in the Thai Forest Tradition.[1] He was a harsh critic of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra as well as of events taking place in Watpa Salawan after the death of its abbot Luangpho Phut.[2]


(August 12, 1913 — January 30, 2011)


Early years

Bua was born in Baan Taad village in the northeastern province of Udon Thani. He was one of 16 children of a rich family of rice farmers.[3] When he was 21, his parents asked him to enter the monkhood for a season, a Thai tradition to show gratitude towards one’s parents. He entered Yothanimit monastery and was ordained on May 12, 1934 with Venerable Chao Khun Dhammachedi as his preceptor. His preceptor gave him the Pali name ‘Nanasampanno’, meaning ‘one endowed with wisdom’. At the time, Bua had no intention of remaining a monk for the rest of his life.
As Pra Nanasampanno, he studied the incarnations of the Buddha and his Arahant Disciples. He has said he was so impressed that he decided to seek the same enlightenment as had the Buddha’s original disciples. He tried to understand the ways of practicing the Dhamma (Dharma) which would eventually lead to Nibbana (Nirvana).
He studied Pali, the language of Theravada Buddhism, as well as the Vinaya (the monastic rules of correct conduct). After seven years, he passed the third level of Pali studies, and achieved the highest level in Dhamma and Vinaya studies. He then concentrated entirely on the practice of Dhamma in hopes of studying with Venerable Ajahn Mun, one of the most renowned meditation masters of his time.[4]

Venerable Ajahn Mun

Nanasampanno then went in search of Venerable Ajahn Mun. When he finally met him, he was pleased with his efforts, since it seemed as if Mun already knew his desires, intentions, and doubts. Mun clarified the questions in his mind and showed him the paths leading to Nibbana still exist.He learned the meditation methods followed by Mun, based on the principles of Buddhism and the code of Buddhist discipline. He continued to follow these methods in his own teaching of monks and novices. Due to his deep respect and admiration for Mun, whom he likens to a father and mother to his students, he was inspired to write a biography of Mun to disseminate his methods of practice and document his character for coming generations. He has also written many books on the practice of Buddhist meditation and recorded teachings on Dhamma so Buddhists may have a guide in practicing meditation.[5] One of his fellow student monks was Ajahn Thate.

Seclusion and establishing a monastery

In 1950, after the death of Mun, Bua sought a secluded place. He went to Huey Sai village in Mukdahan province. He was very strict and serious in teaching the monks and novices, both in the austere dhutanga practices and in meditation. He continued his teaching until these same principles became established amongst his followers.
Learning that his mother was ill, he returned home to look after her. Villagers and relatives requested that he settle permanently in the forest south of the village and no longer wander in the manner of a forest monk. As his mother was very old and that it was appropriate for him to look after her, he accepted the offer. With a donation of 64 acres (26 ha) of land, he began to build his monastery in November 1955. It was given the name Wat Pa Baan Taad.[5]

Wat Pa Baan Taad

The wilderness surrounding the monastery has vanished, as it has now been cleared for cultivation. The forest inside the monastery is all that remains. Wat Pa Baan Taad preserves this remnant in its original condition, so that monks, novices, and lay people can use its tranquility for the practice of the Dhamma as taught by the Lord Buddha.[5]
Some basic teachings on the ‘Citta’Bua sees the essential enduring truth of the sentient being as constituted of the indestructible reality of the citta (heart/mind), which is characterized by the attribute of Awareness or Knowingness. This citta, which is intrinsically bright, clear, and Aware, gets superficially tangled up in samsara but ultimately cannot be destroyed by any samsaric phenomenon. Although Bua is often at pains to emphasise the need for meditation upon the non-Self (anatta), he also points out that the citta, while getting caught up in the vortex of conditioned phenomena, is not subject to destruction as are those things which are impermanent, suffering, and non-Self (anicca, dukkha, anatta). The citta is ultimately not beholden to these laws of conditioned existence. The citta is bright, radiant, and deathless, and is its own independent reality:
‘Being intrinsically bright and clear, the citta is always ready to make contact with everything of every nature. Although all conditioned phenomena without exception are governed by the three universal laws of anicca, dukkha, and anattã, the citta’s true nature is not subject to these laws. The citta is conditioned by anicca, dukkha, and anattã only because things that are subject to these laws come spinning in to become involved with the citta and so cause it to spin along with them. However, though it spins in unison with conditioned phenomena, the citta never disintegrates or falls apart. It spins following the influence of those forces which have the power to make it spin, but the true power of the citta’s own nature is that it knows and does not die. This deathlessness is a quality that lies beyond disintegration. Being beyond disintegration, it also lies beyond the range of anicca, dukkha, and anattã and the universal laws of nature. ….’[6]
The fundamental problem that besets human beings, according to Bua, is that they have taken fake and false things as their true self and lack the necessary power to be their ‘own true self'; they allow the wiles and deceits of the mental defilements to generate fear and anxiety in their minds. Fear and anxiety are not inherent within the citta; in fact, the citta is ultimately beyond all such things and indeed is beyond time and space. But it needs to be cleansed of its inner defilements (the kilesas) before that truth can be realised. Bua states:
‘Our real problem, our one fundamental problem—which is also the citta’s fundamental problem—is that we lack the power needed to be our own true self. Instead, we have always taken counterfeit things to be the essence of who we really are, so that the citta’s behavior is never in harmony with its true nature. Rather, it expresses itself through the kilesas’ cunning deceits, which cause it to feel anxious and frightened of virtually everything … As a result, the citta is forever full of worries and fears. And although fear and worry are not intrinsic to the citta, they still manage to produce apprehension there. When the citta has been cleansed so that it is absolutely pure and free of all involvement, only then will we see a citta devoid of all fear. Then, neither fear nor courage appear, only the citta’s true nature, existing naturally alone on its own, forever independent of time and space. Only that appears—nothing else. This is the genuine citta’.[7]
Bua goes on to attempt to describe the inner stages and experience of the cleansed citta. When its purgation of defilements is complete, it itself does not disappear – only the impermanent, suffering, and the non-Self disappear. The citta remains, experientially abiding in its own firm foundation, yet ultimately indescribable:
‘Once the Citta has become so well-cleansed that it is always bright and clear, then … even though the citta has not ‘converged’ in samãdhi, the focal point of its awareness is so exceedingly delicate and refined as to be indescribable. This subtle awareness manifests as a radiance that extends forth in all directions around us. We are unconscious of sights, sounds, odors, tastes, and tactile sensations, despite the fact that the citta has not entered samãdhi. Instead, it is actually experiencing its own firm foundation, the very basis of the citta that has been well-cleansed to the point where a mesmerizing, majestic quality of knowing is its most prominent feature.
‘Seeming to exist independent of the physical body, this kind of extremely refined awareness stands out exclusively within the citta. Due to the subtle and pronounced nature of the citta at this stage, its knowing nature completely predominates. No images or visions appear there at all. It is an awareness that stands out exclusively on its own. This is one aspect of the citta.
‘Another aspect is seen when this well-cleansed citta enters meditative calm, not thinking or imagining anything. Ceasing all activity, all movement, it simply rests for awhile. All thought and imagination within the citta come to a complete halt. This is called “the citta entering a state of total calm.” Then, the citta’s essential knowing nature is all that remains. Except for this very refined awareness—an awareness that seems to blanket the entire cosmos—absolutely nothing else appears… Distance is not a factor. To be precise, the citta is beyond the conditions of time and space, which allows it to blanket everything. Far is like near, for concepts of space do not apply. All that appears is a very refined awareness suffusing everything throughout the entire universe. The whole world seems to be filled by this subtle quality of knowing, as though nothing else exists, though things still exist in the world as they always have. The all-encompassing flow of the citta that has been cleansed of the things that cloud and obscure it, this is the citta’s true power.
‘The citta that is absolutely pure is even more difficult to describe. Since it is something that defies definition, I don’t know how I could characterize it. It cannot be expressed in the same way that conventional things in general can be, simply because it is not a conventional phenomenon. It is the sole province of those who have transcended all aspects of conventional reality, and thus realize within themselves that non-conventional nature. For this reason, words cannot describe it.
‘Why do we speak of a “Conventional” Citta and an “absolutely pure” citta? Are they actually two different cittas? Not at all. It remains the same citta. When it is controlled by conventional realities, such as kilesas and ãsavas, that is one condition of the citta. But when the faculty of wisdom has scrubbed it clean until this condition has totally disintegrated, the true citta, the true Dhamma, the one that can stand the test, will not disintegrate and disappear along with it. Only the conditions of anicca, dukkha, and anattã, which infiltrate the citta, actually disappear.
‘No matter how subtle the kilesas may be, they are still conditioned by anicca, dukkha, and anattã, and therefore, must be conventional phenomena. Once these things have completely disintegrated, the true citta, the one that has transcended conventional reality, becomes fully apparent. This is called the citta’s Absolute Freedom, or the citta’s Absolute Purity. All connections continuing from the citta’s previous condition have been severed forever. Now utterly pure, the citta’s essential knowing nature remains alone on its own….
‘Since this refined awareness does not have a point or a center, it is impossible to specifically locate its position. There is only that essential knowing, with absolutely nothing infiltrating it. Although it still exists amid the same khandhas with which it used to intermix, it no longer shares any common characteristics with them. It is a world apart. Only then do we know clearly that the body, the khandhas, and the citta are all distinct and separate realities…’[8]
Some of the notions found here are reminiscent of the Tathagatagarbha tradition – although the latter posits an original, primordial purity to the mind, whereas Bua sees that purity as needing to be established through mental and moral cultivation.[9]

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Hisaye Yamamoto, American author died she was , 89.

Hisaye Yamamoto was a Japanese American author died she was , 89. She is best known for the short story collection Seventeen Syllables and Other Stories, first published in 1988. Her work confronts issues of the Japanese immigrant experience in America, the disconnect between first and second generation immigrants, as well as the difficult role of women in society.


(August 23, 1921 — January 30, 2011)

Historical Context


The late nineteenth century in Japan saw momentous political, social, and cultural upheaval, now known as the Meiji Restoration. In an effort to transform the long-established feudal society into a contemporary capitalist economy, Emperor Meiji rapidly imposed western industrial advancements on the traditional eastern values of Japan, creating a great deal of uncertainty and unrest amongst its people, many of whom began to desire a fresh start in a new land. Shortly thereafter, in 1885, the Japanese government approved the emigration of Japanese nationals, bringing the first wave of idealistic immigrants to the west coast of the United States. This generation, known as the Issei, initially was almost entirely unmarried young men. Most led agrarian lifestyles, either farming sugar cane and pineapple in Hawaii or fruit and other produce in California. The goal was to achieve a certain level of establishment before the arrival of family.


As a result of anti-Japanese sentiments in California, tensions between the two countries began to rise. The Gentlemen’s Agreement of 1907, was devised in an effort to ease this mounting stress. The Agreement was an informal one, one in which the Japanese government agreed to cease the issue of passports to men alongside the refusal of the American government to accept them as immigrants. Women, children, and parents were excluded from this arrangement, as was necessary to maintain civility between the two nations. As more and more Japanese families began to reunite on American soil, Americans continued to feel threatened by the growing success of their independent farming ventures, an attitude that led to the passage of the California Alien Land Law in 1913. Prohibiting those not eligible for citizenship from owning or leasing land for more than three years at a time, the hard-earned comfort of establishment dissolved rapidly, leading Japanese Americans into a transient lifestyle of constant relocation. Soon thereafter, in 1924, the Asian Exclusion Act was passed, a federal legislation banning the immigration of all Asian peoples, both nullifying the Gentlemen’s Agreement and, in effect, formally extending it to include women, children, and elders.

Background and Career

Early life

Yamamoto was born to Issei parents in Redondo Beach, California. Her generation, the Nisei, were often in perpetual motion, born into the nomadic existences imposed upon their parents by the California Alien Land Law and the Asian Exclusion Act. As a mainstay, Yamamoto found comfort in reading and writing from a young age, producing almost as much work as she consumed. As a teen, her enthusiasm mounted as Japanese American newspapers began publishing her letters and short stories.[1] Many Issei immigrants were concerned with preserving their native language, while the interests of the Nisei tended more towards expressions of loyalty to the United States, most easily achieved through knowledge and application of the English language. As a result, the communication lines between Japanese parents and their children faced rapid degradation, hampering the preservation of traditional Japanese culture in America. Initially writing solely in English, Yamamoto’s recognition of this language barrier and generational gap would soon become one of her primary influences.

World War II and the Relocation of Japanese Americans

On December 7, 1941, Pearl Harbor was bombed by the Japanese navy, an act of war that was both undeclared by the Japanese and unexpected by the United States. Within four months of the bombing, Japanese Americans numbering close to 120,000 were forced into internment, two-thirds of which were born on American soil. Abandoning homes, farms, and businesses, this forceful relocation movement contributed to a certain physical, social, and psychological uprooting that Yamamoto would repeatedly address in her work. Japanese women leading ephemeral lives in the United States often had no female confidants outside of the family. In spite of the perpetual hardships that they faced, literature and poetry continued to flourish in the new land. In a sense, as a response to the various forms of imprisonment and relocation faced by both Issei and Nisei women, be it jail, internment, poverty, gender, or even marriage, art became the only source of freedom in their lives.
Yamamoto was twenty years old when her family was placed in the internment camp in Poston, Arizona. She had two brothers, one of whom was killed in combat fighting for the United States army during her family’s internment.[2] In an effort to stay active, Yamamoto began reporting for the Poston Chronicle, the camp newspaper. She started by publishing her first work of fiction, Death Rides the Rails to Poston, a mystery that was later added to Seventeen Syllables and Other Stories, followed shortly thereafter by a much shorter piece entitled, Surely I Must be Dreaming. She briefly left the camp to work in Springfield, Massachusetts, but returned when her brother died while fighting with the U.S. Army’s 442nd Regimental Combat Team in Italy.[3] The three years that Yamamoto spent at Poston profoundly impacted all of her writing that followed.

Life after the War

World War II came to an end in 1945 closing the internment camps and releasing their detainees. Yamamoto and her family returned to California, this time in Los Angeles, where she began working for the Los Angeles Tribune. This weekly newspaper, intended for African American audiences, employed Yamamoto primarily as a columnist, but also as an editor and field reporter.[1] Spending three years sheltered by internment, these next three spent working for the Tribune allowed Yamamoto to explore some of the intricacies of racial interaction in the United States separate from those experienced first-hand in the internment camp. Much of what she learned and implemented in her writing broadened the reception of her work to extend outside of solely Asian American audiences.
After enjoying much critical acclaim in the late 1940s and early 1950s, Yamamoto married Anthony DeSoto and settled in Los Angeles, California.[1] The mother of five, Yamamoto has discussed the difficulties she has in finding time to write, stating: “Most of the time I am cleaning house, or cooking or doing yard work. Very little time is spent writing. But if somebody told me I couldn’t write, it would probably grieve me very much.” [2]
DeSoto passed away in 2003. Yamamoto, who had been in poor health since a stroke in 2010, died in her sleep at her home in northeast Los Angeles at the age of 89.[3]

Writing Style and Influence

Yamamoto’s stories are often compared to the poetic form, haiku, described as “layered in metaphor, imagery, and irony, but never wordy or given to digression.” [4] She has also been praised “for her subtle realizations of gender and sexual relationships.”[5] Her writing is sensitive, painstaking, heartfelt, and delicate, yet blunt and economical, a style that pays homage to her Japanese heritage while establishing contemporary appeal.

Seventeen Syllables and Other Stories

This collection was first published in 1988, and includes stories written across a time span of forty years, since the end of World War II. The collection includes some of Yamamoto’s most-anthologized works, such as “Yoneko’s Earthquake,” “The Legend of Miss Sasagawara,” “The Brown House,” and “Seven Syllables,” considered by many to be Yamamoto’s definitive work.[6]
The stories, arranged chronologically by the time of their composition, deal with the experiences of first generation Japanese immigrants (Issei) and their Nisei children. The title is drawn from one of the stories within the collection and refers to the structural requirements of Japanese haiku poetry. Many of the stories have admittedly autobiographical content,[7] making references to the World War II Japanese internment camps, to life in Southern California during the 1940s and ‘50s, and to the experience of being a writer.

Editions of the Text

The original 1988 version of the text was published by Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press. In 1998, Rutgers University Press released a new edition that included the 1987 short story “Reading and Writing.” In 2001, a revised and expanded edition of the book added four more stories written as early as 1942: “Death Rides the Rails to Poston,” “Eucalyptus,” “A Fire in Fontana,” and “Florentine Gardens.”

List of Stories

The High-Heeled Shoes: A Memoir (1948)—This story deals primarily with how women are treated in society. The first-person narrator describes instances of sexual harassment she and other women have experienced, from phone solicitations to threats of rape.
Seventeen Syllables (1949)—This story tracks the parallel stories of a young Nisei girl and her Issei mother: the daughter’s inability to understand her mother’s interest in haiku, the daughter’s budding romance with a young Mexican boy, the mother’s winning of a haiku contest and the father’s resentment of her mother’s artistic success. The story explores the generational gap between Issei and Nisei, as well as themes of interethnic interaction, patriarchal repression, and class-based resentment.
The Legend of Miss Sasagawara (1950)—This is the only story that takes place in a Japanese relocation camp. Narrated by a young Japanese-American girl, the story provides a broad portrait of one of the inmates at the camp, the daughter of a Buddhist priest, a woman named Miss Sasagawara, who develops a reputation for acting insane. At the end of the story, a poem written by Miss Sasagawara reveals her lucidity and her sense of being repressed by her Buddhist father. In this way, the story confronts the intersection of ethnic and patriarchal oppression.
Wilshire Bus (1950)—Shortly after World War II, a young Japanese-American narrator observes an American on a bus attacking a Chinese couple, whom he has taken to be Japanese and believes to be enemies of the United States. The narrator contemplates anti-Japanese sentiment as well as the complicated interactions between different ethnic groups.
The Brown House (1951)—A wife becomes an unwilling enabler of her husband’s gambling habit, which brings financial trouble on the entire family. This story explores themes of beleaguered wifehood as well as ethnic interactions.
Yoneko’s Earthquake (1951)—One of the most complex stories in the collection, “Yoneko’s Earthquake” relates two parallel plot lines as observed by the main character Yoneko, a young Nisei girl living on her family’s small farm. The story describes the consequences of the arrival of a Filipino farm hand—for both Yoneko, who develops a crush on the man, and for her mother, who commences an affair with him. The story reiterates the theme of mother-daughter, Issei-Nisei, and wife-husband relationships as explored in “Seventeen Syllables.”
Morning Rain (1952)—This story relates a moment in time taking place over breakfast between a Nisei daughter and her Issei father. Over the course of the story, we learn that the daughter has married an American man and feels disconnected from her father. The story ends with a sudden revelation that is symbolic of the communication gap between generations: the woman discovers that her father has difficulty hearing.
Epithalamium (1960)—A Japanese-American bride reminisces about her turbulent relationship with her new husband, an Italian American alcoholic whom she met at a Christian community. The story explores the hopes and disappointments of romance, in particular interethnic romance. The title refers to an ancient Greek poetic form written in honor of a bride.
Las Vegas Charley (1961)—A decades-spanning account of the life of an Issei man, the so-nicknamed “Las Vegas Charley.” The story charts Charley’s immigration to the United States, his marriage and early family life, his confinement in a World War II internment camp for Japanese Americans, and his subsequent migration to Las Vegas to become a dishwasher. The story describes his earnest attempts and inevitable failures to reform himself and improve his circumstances.
Life Among the Oil Fields, A Memoir (1979)—In this non-fiction account, Yamamoto describes her life on a farm among the oil fields of Southern California. The story ends with her brother Jim’s injury in a hit-and-run accident. The Caucasian couple in the car are later tracked down, but they refuse to take responsibility and do not even inquire about Jim’s condition.
The Eskimo Connection (1983)—A Japanese American writer forges a bond with an Eskimo prison inmate through written correspondence. The story paints a humorous and affectionate portrait of interethnic friendship.
My Father Can Beat Muhammad Ali (1986)—An Issei father tries to impress on his American sport-loving sons an interest in Japanese sports. The story reflects the generational gap between traditional-minded Japanese parents and their Americanized children.
Underground Lady (1986)—Describes the encounter between a Japanese American woman and a white woman, who inadvertently reveals her own racial prejudices. The story reveals a negative side to interethnic interaction, as a counterpoint to “The Eskimo Connection,” among others.
A Day in Little Tokyo (1986)—In this story, a young Nisei girl grudgingly accompanies her father and brother to a sumo match, but is left in Little Tokyo, where she observes the comings and goings of the inhabitants. The story explores the generational gap between Issei parents and Nisei children.

Overarching Themes

Disconnection between first- and second-generation immigrants: Many of the stories—notably “Seventeen Syllables,” “Yoneko’s Earthquake,” “Morning Rain,” and “Las Vegas Charley”—comment on the generational gap between the Issei and Nisei, a gap exacerbated by the cultural differences between Japan and the United States. Nowhere perhaps is this gap more clearly stated than in “Las Vegas Charley,” in which the eponymous protagonist mournfully observes, “The young Japanese, the ‘‘Nisei’’, were so Americanized now. While most of them still liked to eat their boiled rice, raw fish, and pickled vegetables, they usually spent New Year’s Eve in some nightclub.”[8] “Las Vegas Charley” observes the generational gap from the perspective of an Issei man and is especially sympathetic to the loss of language and cultural traditions. Other stories, like “Seventeen Syllables,” are told from the perspective of the Nisei, and focus on the confusion of American-born children as they struggle to understand their parents’ remote native culture. In “Seventeen Syllables,” the narrator’s apathy towards haiku is linked to her more serious inability to empathize with her Japanese mother.
Repression of women in Japanese and American societies: The very first story in the anthology, “The High Heeled Shoes,” foregrounds the issue of male tyranny over women’s bodies and minds, in the dual forms of sexual harassment and social expectations on women to be passive. For example, the story makes a feminist critique of Mahatma Gandhi’s advice to be pacifistic in the face of violence. “The High Heeled Shoes” deals with sexual harassment across ethnic lines. Other stories in the collection deal with gender roles and female repression in the context of Japanese culture. Several stories deal with the disappointments of marriage. The long-suffering wife is a recurring character, figuring as martyrs in stories like “Seventeen Syllables,” “Yoneko’s Earthquake,” and “The Brown House.” As a counterpoint, men are most often portrayed as cruel husbands or deadbeat fathers.
Ambiguous interactions between ethnic communities in America: Yamamoto depicts America as a complex network of different ethnicities, made even more complicated by the prejudices and hierarchies created by each ethnic group. Her stories present various interactions between Japanese and Anglo-American, Japanese and Mexican, Japanese and Chinese, Japanese and Filipino, Japanese and African-American, even between Japanese and Eskimo. Several of these interactions emphasize cultural misunderstanding and hostility, for example American hostility towards the Japanese after World War II. Other stories portray ethnic interaction as positive, productive, and meaningful to the parties involved. “The Eskimo Connection” tracks the unusual friendship between a Japanese author and an aspiring Eskimo writer corresponding from prison. Sometimes Yamamoto creates surprising twists based on unexpected moments of empathy or misunderstanding between two groups. In “The Brown House,” a black man’s interaction with a Japanese family is an occasion for cooperation and gratitude, but also for prejudice (“a kurombo!”).

[edit] Adaptations

The 1991 American Playhouse special Hot Summer Winds, was directed by Emiko Omori and was based upon two of Yamamoto’s stories, “Seventeen Syllables” and “Yoneko’s Earthquake.”[9]


Hisaye Yamamoto received acclaim for her work almost from the very beginning of her career. She was, as King-Kok Cheung noted, “one of the first Japanese American writers to gain national recognition after the war, when anti-Japanese sentiment was still rampant.”[10] Although she herself resisted being rigidly characterized as a voice for Japanese or Asian groups (“I don’t think you can write aiming at a specifically Asian-American audience if you want to write freely”[11]), she was considered one of the premier Asian-American authors.
Awards and Fellowships

Secondary sources

  • Cheung, King-Kok. “Hisaye Yamamoto b. 1921.” The Heath Anthology of American Literature, Vol. E, 5th Edition. New York: Houghton Mifflin company, 2006: 2162-3.
  • —. “Introduction,” in Hisaye Yamamoto, Seventeen Syllables and Other Stories (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001): ix-xxiii.
  • —. “Hisaye Yamomoto and Wakako Yamauchi.” IN: Words Matter: Conversations with Asian American Writers. Honolulu, HI: U of Hawaii P, with UCLA Asian American Studies Center; 2000:343-82.
  • —. “Reading between the Syllables: Hisaye Yamamoto’s Seventeen Syllables and Other Stories.” IN: Maitino, and Peck, Teaching American Ethnic Literatures: Nineteen Essays. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P; 1996: 313-25.
  • —. “The Dream in Flames: Hisaye Yamamoto, Multiculturalism, and the Los Angeles Uprising.” IN: Bucknell Review: A Scholarly Journal of Letters, Arts and Sciences, 1995; 39 (1): 118-30.
  • —. Articulate Silences: Hisaye Yamamoto, Maxine Hong Kingston, Joy Kogawa. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.
  • —. “Thrice Muted Tale: Interplay of Art and Politics in Hisaye Yamamoto’s ‘The Legend of Miss Sasagawara’.” MELUS, 1991-1992 Fall; 17 (3): 109-25.
  • —. “Double-Telling: Intertextual Silence in Hisaye Yamamoto’s Fiction.” American Literary History, 1991 Summer; 3 (2): 277-93.
  • Crow, Charles L. “A MELUS Interview: Hisaye Yamamoto.” MELUS 14.1 (Spring 1987): 73-84.
  • —. “The Issei Father in the Fiction of Hisaye Yamamoto.” IN: Truchlar, Für eine offene Literaturwissenschaft: Erkundungen und Eroprobungen am Beispiel US-amerikanischer Texte/Opening Up Literary Criticism: Essays on American Prose and Poetry. Salzburg: Neugebauer; 1986: 34-40.
  • —. “Home and Transcendence in Los Angeles Fiction.” IN: Fine, Los Angeles in Fiction: A Collection of Original Essays. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P; 1984:189-205.
  • Yogi, Stan. “Rebels and Heroines: Subversive Narratives in the Stories of Wakako Yamauchi and Hisaye Yamamoto.” IN: Lim, and Ling, Reading the Literatures of Asian America. Philadelphia: Temple UP; 1992: 131-50.
  • —. “Legacies Revealed: Uncovering Buried Plots in the Stories of Hisaye Yamamoto.” Studies in American Fiction, 1989 Autumn; 17 (2): 169-181.

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Milton Babbitt, American composer died he was , 94.

Milton Byron Babbitt  was an American composer died he was , 94.. He was particularly noted for his serial and electronic music.


(May 10, 1916 – January 29, 2011)


Babbitt was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Barkin & Brody 2001), to Albert E. Babbitt and Sarah Potamkin. He was raised in Jackson, Mississippi, and began studying the violin when he was 4 but soon switched to clarinet and saxophone. Early in his life he was attracted to jazz and theater music. He was making his own arrangements of popular songs at 7, and when he was 13, he won a local songwriting contest.

Babbitt’s father was a mathematician, and it was mathematics that Babbitt intended to study when he entered the University of Pennsylvania in 1931. However, he soon left and went to New York University instead, where he studied music with Philip James and Marion Bauer. There he became interested in the music of the composers of the Second Viennese School, and went on to write a number of articles on twelve tone music including the first description of combinatoriality and a serial “time-point” technique. After receiving his bachelor of arts degree from New York University College of Arts and Science in 1935 with Phi Beta Kappa honors, he studied under Roger Sessions, first privately and then later at Princeton University. At the University he joined the music faculty in 1938 and received one of Princeton’s first Master of Fine Arts degrees in 1942 (Barkin & Brody 2001). During the Second World War Babbitt divided his time between mathematical research in Washington, DC, and Princeton, where he became a member of the mathematics faculty from 1943 to 1945 (Barkin & Brody 2001).
In 1948, Babbitt joined Princeton University’s music faculty and in 1973, became a member of the faculty at the Juilliard School in New York. Among his more notable former students are music theorists David Lewin and John Rahn, composers Donald Martino, Laura Karpman, Tobias Picker, Paul Lansky, and John Melby, the theatre composer Stephen Sondheim, and the jazz guitarist and composer Stanley Jordan.
In 1958, Babbitt achieved unsought notoriety through an article in the popular magazine High Fidelity (Babbitt 1958). His title for the article, “The Composer as Specialist”, was changed, without his knowledge or consent, to “Who Cares if You Listen?” More than 30 years later, he commented that, because of that “offensively vulgar title”, he was “still … far more likely to be known as the author of ‘Who Cares if You Listen?’ than as the composer of music to which you may or may not care to listen” (Babbitt 1991, 17).
Babbitt later became interested in electronic music. He was hired by RCA as consultant composer to work with their RCA Mark II Synthesizer at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (known since 1996 as the Columbia University Computer Music Center), and in 1961 produced his Composition for Synthesizer. Babbitt was less interested in producing new timbres than in the rhythmic precision he could achieve using the Mark II synthesizer, a degree of precision previously unobtainable in live performances (Barkin & Brody 2001).
Babbitt continued to write both electronic music and music for conventional musical instruments, often combining the two. Philomel (1964), for example, was written for soprano and a synthesized accompaniment (including the recorded and manipulated voice of Bethany Beardslee, for whom the piece was composed) stored on magnetic tape.
Milton Babbitt died in Princeton, New Jersey on January 29, 2011 at the age of 94 (Kozinn 2011).

Honors and awards

  • He became a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1965.
  • In 1982, the Pulitzer Prize board awarded a “special citation to Milton Babbitt for his life’s work as a distinguished and seminal American composer” (Columbia University 1991, 70).
  • From 1985 until his death he served as the Chairman of the BMI Student Composer Awards, the international competition for young classical composers.
  • In 1986, he was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship.
  • In 1988, he received the Mississippi Institute of Arts and Letters Award for music composition.
  • In 2000, he was inducted as a National Patron of Delta Omicron, an international, professional music fraternity (Klafeta and Beckner 2009; Anon. 2000).


  • (1955). “Some Aspects of Twelve-Tone Composition”. The Score and I.M.A. Magazine 12:53–61.
  • (1958). “Who Cares if You Listen?“. High Fidelity (February). [Babbitt called this article "The Composer as Specialist." The original title was changed without his knowledge or permission by an editor at High Fidelity.]
  • (1960). “Twelve-Tone Invariants as Compositional Determinants,” Musical Quarterly 46/2.
  • (1961). “Set Structure as Compositional Determinant,” Journal of Music Theory 5/1.
  • (1965). “The Structure and Function of Musical Theory,” College Music Symposium 5.
  • (1972). “Contemporary Music Composition and Music Theory as Contemporary Intellectual History”, Perspectives in Musicology: The Inaugural Lectures of the Ph. D. Program in Music at the City University of New York.
  • (1987) Words About Music: The Madison Lectures, edited by Stephen Dembski and Joseph Straus. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • (1992) [written 1946] “The Function of Set Structure in the 12-tone system.” PhD Dissertation, Princeton University.
  • (2003). The Collected Essays of Milton Babbitt, edited by Stephen Peles, Stephen Dembski, Andrew Mead, Joseph Straus. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

List of compositions

  • 1935 Generatrix for orchestra (unfinished)
  • 1939–41 String Trio
  • 1940 Composition for String Orchestra (unfinished)
  • 1941 Symphony (unfinished)
  • 1941 Music for the Mass I for mixed chorus
  • 1942 Music for the Mass II for mixed chorus
  • 1946 Fabulous Voyage (musical, libretto by Richard Koch)
  • 1946 Three Theatrical Songs for voice and piano (taken from Fabulous Voyage)
  • 1947 Three Compositions for Piano
  • 1948 Composition for Four Instruments
  • 1948 String Quartet No. 1 (withdrawn)
  • 1948 Composition for Twelve Instruments
  • 1949 Into the Good Ground film music (withdrawn)
  • 1950 Composition for Viola and Piano
  • 1951 The Widow’s Lament in Springtime for soprano and piano
  • 1951 Du for soprano and piano, August Stramm
  • 1953 Woodwind Quartet [[1]]
  • 1954 String Quartet No. 2
  • 1954 Vision and Prayer for soprano and piano
  • 1955 Two Sonnets for baritone, clarinet, viola, and cello, two poems of Gerard Manley Hopkins
  • 1956 Duet for piano
  • 1956 Semi-Simple Variations for piano
  • 1957 All Set for alto sax, tenor sax, trp, trb, cb, pno, vib, percussion
  • 1957 Partitions for piano
  • 1960 Sounds and Words for soprano and piano
  • 1960 Composition for Tenor and Six Instruments
  • 1961 Composition for Synthesizer
  • 1961 Vision and Prayer for soprano and synthesized tape, setting of a poem by Dylan Thomas
Second Period
  • 1964 Philomel for soprano, recorded soprano, synthesized tape, setting of a poem by John Hollander
  • 1964 Ensembles for Synthesizer
  • 1965 Relata I for orchestra
  • 1966 Post-Partitions for piano
  • 1966 Sextets for violin and piano
  • 1967 Correspondences for string orchestra and synthesized tape
  • 1968 Relata II for orchestra
  • 1968–69 Four Canons for SA
  • 1969 Phonemena for soprano and piano
  • 1970 String Quartet No. 3
  • 1970 String Quartet No. 4
  • 1971 Occasional Variations for synthesized tape
  • 1972 Tableaux for piano
  • 1974 Arie da capo for five instrumentalists
  • 1975 Reflections for piano and synthesized tape
  • 1975 Phonemena for soprano and synthesized tape
  • 1976 Concerti for violin, small orchestra, synthesized tape
  • 1977 A Solo Requiem for soprano and two pianos
  • 1977 Minute Waltz (or 3/4 ± 1/8) for piano
  • 1977 Playing for Time for piano
  • 1978 My Ends Are My Beginnings for solo clarinet
  • 1978 My Complements to Roger for piano
  • 1978 More Phonemena for twelve-part chorus
  • 1979 An Elizabethan Sextette for six-part women’s chorus
  • 1979 Images for saxophonist and synthesized tape
  • 1979 Paraphrases for ten instrumentalists
  • 1980 Dual for cello and piano
Third Period
  • 1981 Ars Combinatoria for small orchestra
  • 1981 Don for four-hand piano
  • 1982 The Head of the Bed for soprano and four instruments
  • 1982 String Quartet No.5
  • 1982 Melismata for solo violin
  • 1982 About Time for piano
  • 1983 Canonical Form for piano
  • 1983 Groupwise for flautist and four instruments
  • 1984 Four Play for four players
  • 1984 It Takes Twelve to Tango for piano
  • 1984 Sheer Pluck (composition for guitar)
  • 1985 Concerto for piano and orchestra
  • 1985 Lagniappe for piano
  • 1986 Transfigured Notes for string orchestra
  • 1986 The Joy of More Sextets for piano and violin
  • 1987 Three Cultivated Choruses for four-part chorus
  • 1987 Fanfare for double brass sextet
  • 1987 Overtime for piano
  • 1987 Souper for speaker and ensemble
  • 1987 Homily for snare drum
  • 1987 Whirled Series for saxophone and piano
  • 1988 In His Own Words for speaker and piano
  • 1988 The Virginal Book for contralto and piano, setting of a poem by John Hollander
  • 1988 Beaten Paths for solo marimba
  • 1988 Glosses for Boys’ Choir
  • 1988 The Crowded Air for eleven instruments
  • 1989 Consortini for five players
  • 1989 Play It Again, Sam for solo viola
  • 1989 Emblems (Ars Emblematica), for piano
  • 1989 Soli e duettini for two guitars
  • 1989 Soli e duettini for flute and guitar
  • 1990 Soli e duettini for violin and viola
  • 1990 Envoi for four hands, piano
  • 1991 Preludes, Interludes, and Postlude for piano
  • 1991 Four Cavalier Settings for tenor and guitar
  • 1991 Mehr “Du” for soprano, viola and piano
  • 1991 None but the Lonely Flute for solo flute
  • 1992 Septet, But Equal
  • 1992 Counterparts for brass quintet
  • 1993 Around the Horn for solo horn
  • 1993 Quatrains for soprano and two clarinets
  • 1993 Fanfare for All for brass quintet
  • 1993 String Quartet No. 6
  • 1994 Triad for viola, clarinet, and piano
  • 1994 No Longer Very Clear for soprano and four instruments, setting of a poem by John Ashbery
  • 1994 Tutte le corde for piano
  • 1994 Arrivals and Departures for two violins
  • 1994 Accompanied Recitative for soprano sax and piano
  • 1995 Manifold Music for organ
  • 1995 Bicenguinguagenary Fanfare for brass quintet
  • 1995 Quartet for piano and string trio
  • 1996 Quintet for clarinet and string quartet
  • 1996 Danci for solo guitar
  • 1996 When Shall We Three Meet Again? for flute, clarinet and vibraphone
  • 1998 Piano Concerto No. 2
  • 1998 The Old Order Changeth for piano
  • 1999 Composition for One Instrument for celesta
  • 1999 Allegro Penseroso for piano
  • 1999 Concerto Piccolino for vibraphone
  • 2000 Little Goes a Long Way for violin and piano
  • 2000 Pantuns for soprano and piano
  • 2002 From the Psalter soprano and string orchestra
  • 2002 Now Evening after Evening for soprano and piano, setting of a poem by Derek Walcott
  • 2003 Swan Song No. 1 for flute, oboe, violin, cello, and two guitars
  • 2003 A Waltzer in the House for soprano and vibraphone, setting of a poem by Stanley Kunitz
  • 2004 Concerti for Orchestra, for James Levine and the Boston Symphony Orchestra
  • 2004 Autobiography of the Eye for soprano and cello, setting of a poem by Paul Auster
  • 2005–6 More Melismata for solo cello
  • 2006 An Encore for violin & piano

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Did you know what pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis mean?

Did you know that the longest word in any of the major English language dictionaries is pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis?
Did you know that  pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis is a 45-letter word which refers to a lung disease contracted from the inhalation of very fine silica particles specifically from a volcano?
Did you know that research has discovered that this word was originally a hoax, it has since been used in a close approximation of its originally intended meaning, lending at least some degree of validity to its claim?[4]
Did you know that the Oxford English Dictionary contains pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (30 letters)?
Did you know that pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism is an inherited disorder, named for its similarity to pseudohypoparathyroidism in presentatio
Did you know that the longest non-technical word in major dictionaries is flocci­nauci­nihili­pili­fication at 29 letters?
Did you know that flocci­nauci­nihili­pili­fication consisting of a series of Latin words meaning “nothing” and defined as “the act of estimating something as worthless”, its usage has been recorded as far back as 1741?

Now if you didn’t know, now you know…

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19 people got busted on February 22, 2011

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Did you know that Jack Lanne swam the Golden Gate channel while towing a 2,500-pound (1,100 kg; 180 st) cabin cruiser.?

Did you know that Jack Lanne as early as 1936, at age 21, he opened one of the nation’s first fitness gyms in Oakland?

Did you know that Jack Lanne, fitness gyms in Oakland became a prototype for dozens of similar gyms using his name?

Did you know that Lanne invented a number of exercise machines, including leg-extension and pulley devices?

Did you know that  Lanne produced his own series of videos, and he coached the elderly?

Did you know that by the 1980s, Jack LaLanne’s European Health Spas numbered more than 200?

Did you know he eventually licensed all his health clubs to the Bally company, now known as Bally Total Fitness?

 Did you know that LaLanne presented fitness and exercise advice on television for 34 years?

Did you know that The Jack LaLanne Show was the longest running television exercise program?

Did you know that it began in 1951 as a local program on San Francisco‘s ABC television station, KGO-TV, with LaLanne paying for the airtime himself as a way to promote his gym and related health products?

Did you know that Jack LaLanne accomplished these feats:

  • 1954 (age 40): swam the entire length (8,981 ft/1.7 mi) of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, under water, with 140 pounds (64 kg; 10 st) of air tanks and other equipment strapped to his body; a world record.
  • 1955 (age 41): swam from Alcatraz Island to Fisherman’s Wharf in San Francisco while handcuffed. When interviewed afterwards he was quoted as saying that the worst thing about the ordeal was being handcuffed, which significantly reduced his chance to do a jumping jack.
  • 1956 (age 42): set what was claimed as a world record of 1,033 push-ups in 23 minutes on You Asked For It,[31] a television program hosted by Art Baker.
  • 1957 (age 43): swam the Golden Gate channel while towing a 2,500-pound (1,100 kg; 180 st) cabin cruiser. The swift ocean currents turned this one-mile (1.6 km) swim into a swimming distance of 6.5 miles (10.5 km).
  • 1958 (age 44): maneuvered a paddleboard nonstop from Farallon Islands to the San Francisco shore. The 30-mile (48 km) trip took 9.5 hours.
  • 1959 (age 45): did 1,000 star jumps and 1,000 chin-ups in 1 hour, 22 minutes, to promote The Jack LaLanne Show going nationwide. LaLanne said this was the most difficult of his stunts, but only because the skin on his hands started ripping off during the chin-ups. He felt he couldn’t stop because it would be seen as a public failure.
  • 1974 (age 60): For the second time, he swam from Alcatraz Island to Fisherman’s Wharf. Again, he was handcuffed, but this time he was also shackled and towed a 1,000-pound (450 kg; 71 st) boat.
  • 1975 (age 61): Repeating his performance of 21 years earlier, he again swam the entire length of the Golden Gate Bridge, underwater and handcuffed, but this time he was shackled and towed a 1,000-pound (450 kg; 71 st) boat.
  • 1976 (age 62): To commemorate the “Spirit of ’76”, United States Bicentennial, he swam one mile (1.6 km) in Long Beach Harbor. He was handcuffed and shackled, and he towed 13 boats (representing the 13 original colonies) containing 76 people.[32]
  • 1979 (age 65): towed 65 boats in Lake Ashinoko, near Tokyo, Japan. He was handcuffed and shackled, and the boats were filled with 6,500 pounds (2,900 kg; 460 st) of Louisiana Pacific wood pulp.[33]
  • 1980 (age 66): towed 10 boats in North Miami, Florida. The boats carried 77 people, and he towed them for over one mile (1.6 km) in less than one hour.
  • 1984 (age 70): handcuffed, shackled, and fighting strong winds and currents, towed 70 rowboats, one with several guests, from the Queen’s Way Bridge in the Long Beach Harbor to the Queen Mary, 1 mile.[34]

 Did you know that Francois Henri “Jack” LaLanne was an American fitness, exercise, and nutritional expert and motivational speaker died from pneumonia he was , 96 

(September 26, 1914 – January 23, 2011)


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Did you know that dogs sweat when they get out an exercise?

Did you know that  dogs develop body odor which make them smell?
Did you know that dogs sweat when they get out an exercise?
Did you know that sweat does not actually cause dogs to smell bad , it is when the wet sweat combines with dirt that is already on the dog’s fur helps to create a unpleasant odor?
Did you know the  most common reason dogs smell , is excrete?
Did you know that if excreted material is left around the exit point, this can give off a terrible odor and can be quite funky!


Did you know that if you regularly wash a dog that it keeps the dog clean and prevent bodily odors from developing on the dog? 

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Who is Anna Vasil’yevna Kushchyenko?

Who is Anna Vasil’yevna Kushchyenko? She is know as Anna Vasil’yevna Chapman currently under suspicion of being a Russian national, who while living in New York. Chapman while living in the United States was arrested along with nine others on 27 June 2010, on suspicion of working for the Illegals Program spy ring under the Russian Federation’s external intelligence agency, the SVR (Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki).[2][5] Chapman pleaded guilty to a charge of conspiracy to act as an agent of a foreign government without notifying theU.S. Attorney General, and was deported back to Russia on 8 July 2010, as part of a prisoner swap.


Chapman was 23 February 1982 Anna Vasil’yevna Kushchyenko in Volgograd, according to U.S. authorities,[6] and her father was employed in the Russian embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.[7]According to Chapman’s British ex-husband, her father, Vasily Kushchenko, was also a seniorKGB official, although this is unsubstantiated.[8]

London: 2001–2006

Chapman moved to London in 2000/1, working at NetJets, Barclays Bank and allegedly at a few other companies for brief periods.[9]

She met Alex Chapman at a London Docklands rave party in 2001 and they married shortly thereafter in Moscow;[4] as a result she gained dual Russian-British citizenship, and a British passport.[10] After Anna was arrested in New York, Alex engaged media publicist Max Clifford, and sold his story to The Daily Telegraph newspaper.[4][11][12]

New York: 2006–2010

She took up residence at 20 Exchange Place, one block from Wall Street in Manhattan.[13][14]Alex has stated that Anna told him the enterprise was continually in the red for the first couple of years, and then suddenly in 2009, she had as many as 50 employees and a successful business.[4] Her LinkedIn social networking site profile identified her as CEO of PropertyFinder LLC, a website selling real estate internationally.[14][15]

She is reported to have been dating Michel Bittan, a prominent New York restaurant owner.[16] She later described her time in the US with the Charles Dickens quote, “it was the best of times, it was the worst of times”.[17][18]

Russia: 2010–present

Late December 2010 Chapman was appointed to the public council of Young Guard of United Russia.[19][20] According to the organization she “will be engaged in educating young people”.[21][22]

On 21 January 2011, Chapman began hosting a weekly TV show in Russia called Secrets of the World for REN (TV channel).[23][24][25][26][27]

Illegals Program and arrest

Chapman is one of only two of the Illegals Program Russians arrested in June 2010 who did not use an assumed name.[28]


Officials claimed Chapman worked with a network of others, until an undercover FBI agent attempted to draw her into a trap at a Manhattancoffee shop.[29] The FBI agent offered Chapman a fake passport at Starbucks, with the instructions to forward it to another spy. He asked, “are you ready for this step?”, to which Chapman unequivocally replied, “Of course.” She accepted the passport.[30][31] However, after making a series of phone calls to her father, Vasily Kushchenko, in Moscow, Chapman ended up heeding her father’s advice and handed the passport in at a local police station, but was arrested shortly after.[31][32]

International exchange

After being formally charged, Chapman and nine other detainees became part of a spy swap deal between the US and Russia, the biggest of its kind since 1986.[33] The 10 Russian agents returned to Russia via a chartered jet that landed at Vienna International Airport, where the swap occurred on the morning of 8 July.[3] The Russian jet returned to Moscow’s Domodedovo airport, where after landing the 10 spies were kept away from local and international press.

Revocation of UK citizenship

According to a statement from her US lawyer Robert Baum and media reports, Chapman wished to move to the UK.[34] As a result, theHome Office investigated the use of special powers by the British Home Secretary to deprive Chapman of her British citizenship,[35][36] only used against six people since their introduction in 2002, in part to make it easier to deport radical Muslim cleric Abu Hamza al Masri.[10] The Home Office issued legal papers revoking her citizenship on 13 July 2010.[1] Steps are also being taken to exclude Chapman, meaning she could not travel to the UK.[10] After her deportation to Russia, Baum reiterated that his client had wished to stay in the US; he also said that she was “particularly upset” by the revocation of her UK citizenship and exclusion from the country.[37][38]

Media coverage and popular reaction

After her arrest by the FBI for her involvement with the Illegals Program, Chapman gained celebrity status. Photos of Chapman taken from her Facebook profile appeared on the web, and several videos of her were uploaded to YouTube.[39]

Magazines and blogs detailed her fashion style and dress sense, while tabloids displayed her action figure dolls.[11][40][41][42] Chapman was described by local media in New York as a regular of exclusive bars and restaurants.[40][41][43] US Vice-President Joe Biden, when jokingly asked by Jay Leno on NBC‘s The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, “Do we have any spies that hot?”, replied in a mock serious tone, “Let me be clear. It was not my idea to send her back.”[44]

In October 2010, Chapman posed on the cover of Russian version of Maxim magazine in Agent Provocateur lingerie. The magazine also included Chapman in its list of Russia’s 100 sexiest women.[45][46]

According to the news agency Interfax, effective 1 October 2010 Chapman is employed as an adviser on investment and innovation issues to the President of FundserviceBank, a Moscow bank that handles payments on behalf of state- and private-sector enterprises in the Russian aerospace industry.[47]

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Who is Sara Ramírez?

Who is Sara Ramírez?  The entertainment and acting world knows her as a Mexican-American actress and singer. She is known for her role as Callie Torres in Grey’s Anatomy(2006–present) and as the original Lady of the Lake in the 2005 Broadway musical Spamalot, for which she won the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical.

Early life

Ramírez was born August 31, 1975 in Mazatlán, Sinaloa, a beach resort on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Her father was Mexican and her mother was half Mexican and half Irish-American.[citation needed]Ramírez moved with her mother at age eight to Tierrasanta, in San Diego, California. After graduating from the San Diego School of Creative and Performing Arts in San Diego, California, she graduated from the Juilliard School in New York City, where she refined her skills as an actress.[1] Ramírez speaks both Spanish and English fluently.

She debuted on Broadway playing Wahzinak in Paul Simon‘s The Capeman (1998). In 1999, she appeared in The Gershwins’ Fascinating Rhythm (1999) and received an Outer Critics Circle Award nomination for her role. She has also appeared in A Class Act (2001) andDreamgirls (2001), and she performed in The Vagina Monologues with Tovah Feldshuh and Suzanne Bertish.

  In 1998, she played the voice of Lammy in the video game UmJammer Lammy, a spin-off of PaRappa the Rapper, both on Sony’s PlayStationconsole. She later reprised her role as Lammy in the PlayStation 2 video game sequel PaRappa the Rapper 2, and has a smaller role, unlike the game that preceded it.

In 2004, Ramírez was cast as the Lady of the Lake in the Eric Idle/John Du Prez musical Spamalot, based on the 1975 film Monty Python and the Holy Grail. The musical opened on Broadway in 2005 to widespread acclaim, and Ramírez in particular was singled out for her performance, winning several awards including the 2005 Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Musical.

Following her success on Broadway, Ramírez joined the cast of Grey’s Anatomy in a recurring role as Dr. Calliope ‘Callie’ Torres in the show’s second season. For the third season she became a series regular. On a special Grey’s Anatomy-themed episode of The Oprah Winfrey Show, she revealed that top executives from ABC loved her performance in Spamalot so much that they offered her a role in any ABC show she wanted. She picked Grey’s, of which she was a fan.[2] While Ramírez has never performed a musical number on the show, she did provide a cappella vocals in the song “Silent Night” for the soundtrack of the show’s sixth season episode “Holidaze,” airing November 19, 2009. On December 21, 2009, this version of the song was released as a single on iTunes. Her first solo release is an extended playscheduled for a March 27, 2011 release through the iTunes Store. It will reportedly include three original songs, as well as a recording of a song scheduled to be performed on Grey’s Anatomy.[3]

Year Title Role Notes
1998 You’ve Got Mail Rose
1999 UmJammer Lammy Lammy voice
2000 Spin City Carol 1 episode
Third Watch Gwen Girard 1 episode
Welcome to New York Linda 1 episode
Law & Order: Special Victims Unit Mrs. Barrera 1 episode
2001 PaRappa the Rapper 2 Lammy voice
2002 Spider-Man Police officer at carjacking
Washington Heights Belkis
Baseball Wives Gabriella Martinez
Law & Order: Special Victims Unit Lisa Perez 1 episode
Chicago Female ensemble
2003 As the World Turns Hannah 1 episode
When Ocean Meets Sky Peggy Fears voice
2004 NYPD Blue Irma Pacheco 1 episode
2006–present Grey’s Anatomy Dr. Callie Torres 88 episodes

Stage productions

Year Title Role Theatre
1998 The Capeman Wahzinak Marquis Theatre
1999 The Gershwins’ Fascinating Rhythm Longacre Theatre
The Vagina Monologues Westside Theatre
2001 A Class Act Felicia Ambassador Theatre
Dreamgirls Ford Center for the Performing Arts
2005 Spamalot The Lady of the Lake Shubert Theatre


Awards and nominations

Year Award Category Film or series Result
2005 Tony Award Best Performance by a Featured Actress in a Musical Monty Python’s Spamalot Won
2005 Outer Critics Circle Award Outstanding featured Actress in a Musical Monty Python’s Spamalot Won
2007 Imagen Foundation Awards Best Supporting Actress – Television Grey’s Anatomy Nominated
2007 Screen Actors Guild Award Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Drama Series Grey’s Anatomy Won
2007 ALMA Awards Outstanding Actress in a Drama Television Series Grey’s Anatomy Nominated
2008 ALMA Awards Outstanding Actress in a Drama Television Series Grey’s Anatomy Nominated
2008 Screen Actors Guild Award Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Drama Series Grey’s Anatomy Nominated
2011 Image Awards Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Drama Series Grey’s Anatomy Nominated


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Who is Aahoo Jahansouz Shahi?

Who is Aahoo Jahansouz Shahi? The entertainment and acting world knows her as Sarah Shahi, she is an American-born actress of Spanish and Iranian descent.[2] A former NFL Cheerleader, Shahi was named #90 on the Maxim magazine “Hot 100 of 2005″ list; she moved up to #66 in 2006.[3] She also ranked Rank No. 5 on the AfterEllen.com hot list in 2007.[4] She is probably best known for starring in The L Word as Carmen de la Pica Morales and Life as Detective Dani Reese. She is currently starring as Kate Reed in the 2011 legal drama Fairly Legal on the USA Network.

Early life

Sarah Shahi was born January 10, 1980, and grew up in Euless, Texas,[1] to an Iranian father, Abbas Shahi, and a Spanish mother, known as Mahmonir who was an interior designer.[5][6] She has an older brother, Cyrus, and a younger sister Samantha.[citation needed] She is a great-great-granddaughter of the 19th century Iranian king Fath Ali Shah Qajar. Sarah’s family was forced to leave their homeland two years before the political and social unrest caused by the Islamic Revolution.[7][8] Her birthname, Aahoo, means “gazelle” in Persian.[9]

Shahi adopted Sarah as her name in second grade after hearing the song “Sarah” because “I got tormented” by other children,[1] but grew up speaking Persian as well as English at her father’s insistence. Shahi’s parents began entering her in beauty pageants at the age of eight.[8]Her parents divorced when she was 10.[9] Shahi attended Trinity High School, where she was captain of the volleyball and basketball teams, and Dallas’ Southern Methodist University, majoring in English and Theater. Shahi won the Miss Fort Worth USA pageant in 1997; hoping to become an actress, she joined the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders 1999–2000 squad despite not having cheered before, and appeared on the cover of the squad’s 2000 calendar before moving to Los Angeles.[1]

Acting career

While working as an extra on the set of Dr. T and the Women in Texas, Shahi met director Robert Altman, who encouraged her to move toHollywood,[1] where she received roles in several series, including Alias, Dawson’s Creek, Reba, and Supernatural. She may be best-known for her role as DJ Carmen de la Pica Morales on The L Word, which she joined in its second season.[citation needed] Shahi did not renew her contract with the series for the fourth season, and consequently her character was written out.[10] She also played Farah in the second season of Sleeper Cell, and also appeared in HBO‘s The Sopranos, in the Season 6b episode “Kennedy and Heidi“.

She co-starred in the short-lived NBC series Life as homicide detective Dani Reese.[1][11]

In October 2009, Shahi landed the lead role in the USA Network pilot, Facing Kate. Shahi began filming in November 2009.[12] On March 15, 2010, it was announced that USA Network had ordered eleven more episodes of the series. The show will follow the life of Kate Reed, a top litigator who is frustrated with the bureaucracy and injustice she witnesses in legal system. The series title was later changed to Fairly Legal.[13] The series began airing on USA in January 2011.[14]

On February 3, 2010, Shahi appeared on an episode (“Thrill Seekers and Hell Raisers“) of Psych,[15] playing Burton Guster’s new girlfriend. Her husband Steve Howey also guest-starred in the same episode.

Shahi is currently working on Untitled Beatle Boyin Project as “Carla”.[16] She also will be playing “Hattie Skunk/Hattie Rockworth”, a leading role in the upcoming film East Fifth Bliss.[17]

Personal life

She lived with her mother after her parents divorced. She has a brown belt in karate. She is married to actor Steve Howey, whom she met when she guest starred on Reba. They were engaged in June 2007 while vacationing in Hawaii, and married on February 7, 2009 in Las Vegas. On July 9, 2009, their first child was born. They reside in Los Angeles, California.


Year Film Role Other notes
2000 Dr. T and the Women Cheerleader Uncredited
2003 Old School Erica
2003 Legally Blonde 2: Red, White & Blonde Becky, Delta Nu sister Uncredited
2005 A Lot Like Love Starlet
2006 For Your Consideration Sanchez
2006 The Dog Problem Candy
2007 Rush Hour 3 Zoe Uncredited
2008 Shades of Ray Sana Khaliq
2008 AmericanEast Salwah
2009 Crossing Over Pooneh Baraheri
2011 East Fifth Bliss Hattie Skunk / Hattie Rockworth Post-production
Year Title Role Notes
2000 City Guys Cheerleader Episode: “Shock Treatment”
2000 Spin City Bachelorette Episode: “Blind Faith”
2001 Boston Public Laura Episode: “Chapter Eleven”
2001 Off Centre Angelica Episode: “A Cute Triangle”
2001 Maybe It’s Me Rosa Episode: “The Exchange-Student Episode”
2001–2002 Alias Jenny Episodes: “So It Begins”, “A Broken Heart”, “Reckoning”, “Color Blind”, “Spirit”, “The Box: Part 1″, and “Page 47″
2002 Class of ‘06 Meg Television movie
2002 My Adventures in Television TV Diva Episode: “The Chinese Baby”
2003 Frasier Reservationist Episode: “Door Jam”
2003 Dawson’s Creek Sadie Shaw / Mystery Girl Episodes: “Catch-22″, “Sex and Violence”, and “All the Right Moves”
2003 ER Tara King Episode: “The Greater Good”
2004 Century City Ms. Morris Episode: “Sweet Child of Mine”
2004–2007 Reba Bridget / Kate Episodes: “Cheyenne‘s Rival” and “To Tell You the Truth”
2004 The Jamie Kennedy Experiment Herself Episode: “3.13”
2005 Plan B Bronwyn Television movie
2005 Supernatural Constance Welch / The Woman in White Episode:Pilot
2005–2009 The L Word Carmen de la Pica Morales Main character
2005 The Drop Herself Episode: “2.49”
2006 Teachers Tina Torres Television movie
2006 Sleeper Cell Farrah Episodes: “Faith” and “Torture”
2007 The Sopranos Sonya Aragon Episode: “Kennedy and Heidi”
2007–2009 Life Dani Reese Main character
2007 Last Call with Carson Daly Herself Episode: “September 14, 2007″
2007–2009 Entertainment Tonight Herself Episodes: “August 30, 2007″ and “March 3, 2009″
2008 The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson Herself Episode: “5.54”
2010 Psych Ruby Episode: “Thrill Seekers and Hell Raisers”
2011 Fairly Legal Kate Reed Main character
2011 The Wendy Williams Show Herself Episode: “January 20, 2011″

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Bruce Jackson, American audio engineer, died from a plane crash he was , 62.

Bruce Jackson  was an Australian audio engineer who co-founded JANDS, an Australian audio, lighting and staging company died from a plane crash he was , 62.. He joined American touring audio engineer Roy Clair and mixed concert stage monitors for Elvis Presley in the 1970s. With Clair, Jackson designed audio electronics including a custom mixing console. Beginning in 1978, Jackson toured as Bruce Springsteen‘s band engineer for a decade, using Clair sound systems. A business interest in Fairlight CMI in Sydney introduced Jackson to digital audio, and he subsequently founded Apogee Electronics in Santa Monica, California where he was living. After selling his share of Apogee, Jackson co-founded with Roy and Tony Clair a joint venture which produced the Clair iO, a loudspeaker management system for control of complex concert sound systems. Jackson turned the venture commercial with the help of Dave McGrath’s Lake Technology. Dolby Laboratories bought the technology and formed Dolby Lake with Jackson as vice president, then in 2009 Lab.gruppen acquired the brand. Jackson was honored with the Parnelli Innovator Award in 2005.
While still a partner at Apogee, Jackson began touring with Barbra Streisand, mixing concert sound and serving as sound designer from 1993 to 2007. With two other audio engineers he received an Emmy Award for sound design and sound mixing on Streisand’s TV special Barbra: The Concert.[1] Jackson worked on sound design for the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney[2] and served as audio director for the opening and closing ceremonies.[3][4] He performed the same role in Doha, Qatar, at the 2006 Asian Games and in Vancouver, Canada, at the 2010 Winter Olympics.

(3 June 1948 – 29 January 2011)


Jackson first expressed an interest in electronics at age 13 when he set up a basement workbench and small lab under his parents’ mansion in Point Piper, a seacoast suburb east of Sydney in the district of Vaucluse, New South Wales.[5] (The mansion, “Altona”, is one of Australia’s most expensive homes.[5][6]) While at Vaucluse Boys’ High School, Jackson was discovered by investigators of the Postmaster-General’s Department, along with a group of his electronics-minded schoolmates, operating a too-powerful AM transmitter—a pirate radio station which the boys powered up after school, tuned to the highest end of the commercial AM band.[5] The boys did not know that their tube transmitter and very long, very efficient antenna were so well crafted that their unlicensed signal was broadcasting all over Sydney.[7]
At age 17 or 18, Jackson and one of the boys, Phil Storey, became partners in business. They used their surname initials to form the company name: J&S Research Electronics.[4][7] The partnership’s largest customer, Roger Foley, doing business as Ellis D Fogg,[8] a producer of psychedelic lighting effects, refused to write out the full company name and instead wrote JandS on his checks. The company changed its name to JANDS in response.[7] After moving the company from Point Piper to Rose Bay, JANDS made “whatever the hell they felt like”, according to Jackson: lighting equipment, guitar amplifiers and public address system components such as column loudspeakers.[5] He described how, with so many American servicemen stationed in Vietnam spending their recreation time in Sydney, Australian bands and clubs were doing well: “the live music scene was jumping, and we were busy”.[8] JANDS’ successful rental business paid for the design of new gear.[5] After two years, Jackson quarreled with Storey and left the company.[2] Later, JANDS grew “to become Australia’s largest sound and lighting company.”[4]

Clair Brothers

Jackson first met Roy Clair at a Sydney stop in a world tour by the band Blood, Sweat & Tears in 1969 or 1970, the concert held at Randwick Racecourse.[5] Clair had brought his unusually large American concert sound system to Australia and Jackson was curious to hear it, and to see how the big black ‘W’ bins were designed. He and a friend sneaked into the concert and spoke with Clair, asking “a whole stack of questions”.[5] Clair decided to leave his sound system in Jackson’s hands for a series of Johnny Cash tour dates coming up in some six months, rather than shipping all the gear home to the USA and back in between.[3] Jackson stored the system and then mixed the Cash tour across Australia. Afterward, Clair invited Jackson to visit him in Lititz, Pennsylvania.[3] Following a trip to London, Jackson stopped in at Clair Brothers and stayed to live in Pennsylvania.[3]
Jackson assisted Clair Brothers by teaming with Ron Borthwick to design a mixing console that folded up into its own road case, a proprietary model used by Clair for some 12 years of top tours.[9] The console used novel plasma bargraph meters which displayed both average and peak sound level, combining the characteristics of fast peak meters and slower VU meters.[10] Clair built 10 of the consoles, the first live sound console to incorporate parametric equalization.[4]

Elvis Presley

Working for Clair Brothers, Jackson toured with Elvis Presley, mixing monitors while independent engineer Bill Porter mixed front of house (FOH) for the audience. Clair supplied all the audio gear; Jackson designed a powerful stage monitor system for Presley’s show.[11] To make more room for audience seating, he also used a sound reinforcement system that was not mounted on scaffolding but hung with steel chain above the audience from overhead beams, using chain hoists rigged upside down to raise the loudspeakers from the floor—a now-common method used by licensed riggers.[2][4] Jackson has said that he made a number of concert recordings during this period, all unreleased.[3]
The earliest of these Clair-supported dates did not have a dedicated monitor engineer—monitors were mixed from FOH by Porter, assisted by Jackson. Jackson noticed that Presley’s performance was very much dependent on how easily he was able to hear himself from the monitor speakers. Jackson said, “some nights would work well and others would be a total train wreck.”[5] He advocated for a separate monitor mixing position at the side of the stage and after overcoming resistance to the concept was given this dedicated position.[5] Asked whether he thus invented the role of concert monitor engineer, Jackson replied, “no …its time had come.”[5]
Jackson had to deal with Presley’s absence from rehearsals at Graceland and concert soundchecks. The singer would usually show up at the concert venue at the last minute, walk out on stage and start to sing, having never heard the sound system. Presley sometimes turned to the side of the stage to ask Jackson to make changes, and a few times he stopped the show to have Jackson come out and stand center stage and listen carefully to the monitors while Presley sang to 20,000 people.[5] One night in Fort Worth, Texas, Presley led the audience in singing “Happy Birthday to You” in honor of the engineer’s birthday—an “amazing, and very embarrassing” occasion for Jackson.[5] Jackson can be seen at his side-stage mix position in Presley’s 1977 “CBS Special” TV show. At Presley’s final performance on 26 June 1977, he said “I would like to thank my sound engineer: Bruce Jackson from Australia.”[3]
Touring with Presley was like no other assignment. Presley and his entourage traveled in four or five jets to the next tour stop: one for Elvis and his closest colleagues, one for the band, one for Colonel Tom Parker (Presley’s manager), one for concessions and crew, and a Learjet used by RCA Records management who would fly ahead of everyone else.[5] For two weeks during June and July 1973, Elvis flew on an all-black DC-9 airliner with a Playboy logo on the tail; the aircraft was named Big Bunny. Jackson said he and the other Elvis-chosen passengers were served food and drinks by elite Playboy Bunnies called “Jet Bunnies”.[3]
Parker managed the concert tours for Presley, and exerted a strong influence. Jackson quit his job while on tour after he was “pushed too far” by Parker, according to Roy Clair.[12] Presley apologized to Jackson, and he rejoined the tour as an independent engineer, answering only to Presley.[12] Jackson mixed hundreds of concerts for the singer, who called him “Bruce the Goose”[13]—a working life filled with strange hours, hard physical labor and constant traveling.[5] In August 1977 he was in Portland, Maine setting up at the next Presley engagement when he heard he had died.[9]

Independent engineer

Bruce Springsteen

As an independent engineer, Jackson signed a contract to work directly for Bruce Springsteen, on concert tours supported by Clair. Jackson mixed Springsteen on four major tours from 1978 to 1988, and is credited as engineer on the album Live/1975–85. The tours include Darkness, The River, Born in the U.S.A. and Tunnel of Love Express. Prior to each tour, Springsteen and the E-Street Band practiced at Clair Brothers in Lititz to check out new sound system components and lighting effects, and to give crew members a chance to work out the technical details. Jackson mixed the rehearsals and concerts on the folding console he designed for Clair. Springsteen called him “BJ”.[5]
Right away, Jackson noticed that Springsteen was a very particular critic of his own concert sound. At every new venue, Springsteen would take “BJ” around to various seats in the concert venue, sitting in every section, even the last row of seats, and listen to the E-Street Band play.[14][15][16] He asked Jackson why the sound was not so good far away as it was up close, and if the audio crew could do anything about it. Jackson said, “we can do a lot about it”, and worked with Clair to design a ring of delay loudspeakers positioned closer to the farthest seats to augment the high frequencies lost over distance by sound waves traveling through air.[17] This made the hi-hat sound more “crisp and clean”, with higher quality sound in the back row than previously experienced in such large venues.[17] Throughout Jackson’s years with him, Springsteen maintained his interest in delivering high quality sound to every seat, and the solutions grew in size and complexity until by 1984 there were eight rings of delays set up for the largest venues.[17]

In 1985 for the Born in the U.S.A. tour, Jackson arrived at a “checkerboard” configuration of loudspeakers which were supplied with nominal left and right stereo signals, the signals connected throughout the sound system in an alternating pattern of vertical lines of eight loudspeakers each, giving the audience a semblance of stereo imaging otherwise impractical on such a large scale.[18] A reporter from Popular Mechanics described the 160 main and 40 auxiliary loudspeakers typically used at a large arena or stadium. Jackson set the main loudspeakers 54 feet (16 m) high on scaffolding, each enclosure holding two 18-inch low-frequency cone drivers, four 10-inch mid-frequency cone drivers, two high-mid compression drivers and two high-frequency compression drivers. The auxiliary zones covered audience areas which wrapped around to the sides of the stage. The 200 loudspeakers were driven by 96 amplifier channels capable of putting out a total of 380,000 watts.[18] The tour was said to have drawn “unusual critical acclaim for crispness and distortion-free performances.”[18] Jackson was nominated for a TEC Award as 1985’s best sound reinforcement engineer but Gene Clair received the honor.[19]
Jackson worked closely with individual musicians in Springsteen’s band to help them achieve the sound they wanted. Keyboard player Danny Federici received attention from John Stilwell and Jackson who collaborated in modifying his cut-down Hammond B-3 organ. Clarence Clemons came to Jackson with his ideas about microphones; subsequently, the sound of his saxophones was picked up by a device invented jointly by Clemons and Jackson. Bassist Garry Tallent described the elements of his bass rig to a reporter then summed up its overall effect by saying, “the rest is up to God and Bruce Jackson.”[20]
Jackson was close to Presley, but the two men were not near in age. Springsteen was closer to Jackson’s age and the two got along as friends, the singer giving a Jeep off-road vehicle as a gift in thanks for his contribution to successful concerts. Jackson said of the Jeep that he sold it after tiring of “bouncing around the place in it.”[21] In 1988, Jackson quit touring at the birth of his son Lindsey.[17] He settled in Santa Monica, California, to concentrate on audio electronics ideas.

Barbra Streisand

Jackson was working as an entrepreneur in digital audio electronics in 1993 when Barbra Streisand‘s producer asked him to mix her first concert tour in decades.[2] Jackson signed on partly because he was assured he could do anything to make her concert sound as good as possible. Jackson determined that huge concert venues such as Wembley Stadium and Madison Square Garden would be carpeted for Streisand, and that expensive heavy drapes would be hung at the walls to damp sound reflections. After discovering that Streisand did not like to listen to any stage monitors made after the 1960s, he designed a stage wedge which used soft dome drivers for midrange and for high frequencies rather than the more powerful compression drivers in common use after the 1970s.[17] As well, the main sound system Jackson specified was a new design by Clair Brothers, a proprietary line array system called the I4.[17] Streisand was not willing to wear in-ear monitors but the band was fitted with them, to reduce stage wash and make the band’s instruments stand out better individually in the mix.[17] The stage monitors, line array and extravagant acoustic treatments were a hit with Streisand, who said of Jackson that he was “the best sound engineer in the world.”[2]
Streisand employed Jackson’s mixing talents on her 1995 TV special called Barbra: The Concert. Along with Ed Greene and Bob La Masney who worked on post-production mixing, he received an Emmy Award for sound design and the mixing of the live show.[1] Jackson designed the sound for Streisand’s 1999–2000 Timeless: Live in Concert Tour, and he mixed the New Year’s Eve concert 31 December 1999 at the MGM Grand Garden Arena in Las Vegas. He mixed Streisand’s appearances in Sydney and Melbourne in March 2000,[17] connecting the large backing choir’s sound mix by optical fibre from a nearby polo field where the choir was stationed. The fibre connection was Jackson’s real-world test of a similar setup planned to be used for the Summer Olympics six months later.[22]
Jackson mixed Streisand’s U.S. and world tours in 2006 and 2007, using a Digidesign Venue digital mixing console at FOH for its smaller footprint (allowing more audience seats) and its plug-in audio effects. As well, the Venue mixing system was chosen for its integration with Pro Tools, to make 128-channel hard disk recordings of the concerts directly from the three Digidesign consoles: one to mix strings, one to mix brass, reeds and percussion, and one under Jackson’s control out in the audience, with Streisand’s microphone inputs and stems from the other consoles.[23] The recordings made in New York City and Washington, D.C. were remixed into the album Live In Concert 2006—Jackson was listed as sound designer.[24] Sharing sound designer and FOH mixing duties with Chris Carlton, Jackson made certain that the custom soft dome monitor wedges were positioned correctly aiming up from under the stage to cover everywhere Streisand might walk.[25] Clair Brothers supplied 18 Dolby Lake Processors for the tour, the majority used by Jackson to tune the main sound system, and the rest for control of monitor wedges used by Streisand and by the supporting artist, Il Divo.[26] For Streisand’s voice, Jackson auditioned several wireless microphones and ended up using a Sennheiser SKM 5200 transmitter equipped with a Neumann KK 105 S supercardioid capsule. He used the vocal microphone to test the sound system from different locations around the arena.[27] When the tour hit the UK and continental Europe, Jackson changed from a Neumann to a Røde Microphones capsule, custom made to his requirements; one that Røde called the “Jackson Special”.[28] Jackson used Millennia microphone preamps for any microphone that was required to be sent to multiple mixing consoles, such as at Madison Square Garden where cable runs to the recording trucks were 800 feet (240 m) long, so that the microphone would not be loaded down and changed in its tone quality.[29]

Other artists

In addition to Presley, Springsteen and Streisand, Jackson mixed concert sound for Diana Ross, Stevie Wonder, Rod Stewart and the Faces, Barry White, Jefferson Airplane, Ozzy Osbourne, Carly Simon, Three Dog Night, The Jackson 5, Cat Stevens, Glenn Campbell, Art Garfunkel, Procol Harum and Lou Reed.[3][21][30] During 1983 when Springsteen was not touring, Jackson mixed sound for Stevie Nicks on The Wild Heart Tour, June to November 1983. Fourteen years later he mixed for Fleetwood Mac during their live performances recorded in Burbank for MTV, released as the album The Dance.[31]

World events

In 1998, Jackson was contacted by Ric Birch of the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) to mix sound for the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in Sydney. Jackson felt that his skills would be put to best use as organizer and audio director rather than as one man behind a mixing console.[22] He put together a team of audio professionals as well as an equipment design composed of digital nodes linked with optic fibre to transport digital audio around the largest venues without attenuation or ground hum. To wire the spectacle which played to 110,000 people in attendance and some 3 billion distant viewers around the world, redundant systems were connected throughout so that a single failure point could not halt the show.[22] To complete the assignment, Jackson said one of the main factors was working within budget, which was not unlimited as it had been with Streisand.[17] He served as audio director for the opening ceremony on 15 September and the closing ceremony on 1 October.[4] Before the event, he told a reporter, “I have a well rehearsed crew in place and there is every reason to expect it to go well.”[22]
In December 2006, Jackson served as audio director at the 15th Asian Games, held in Doha, Qatar.[9][32] The main loudspeakers for the opening and closing ceremonies were the KUDO model from L-ACOUSTICS.[32] Jackson found that extreme heat and occasional downpours did not adversely affect the Optocore fibre audio connections around the largest venues. Digital audio was passed to a combination of Lake Contour and Dolby Lake Processors.[33]
Following his success in Sydney, Jackson was tapped to direct the audio design and production at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, where he directed the opening ceremony and the closing ceremony.[34] His sound design for BC Place Stadium did not have loudspeakers at ground level aimed up at the seating areas—Jackson determined that this approach would produce too much uncontrolled reverberation from sound waves bouncing off the ceiling. Instead, he configured two rings of loudspeakers hung from the ceiling 100 ft (30 m) above the ground, aimed downward. The inner ring held 8 arrays each composed of 12 Clair i3 line array speakers and the outer ring held 12 arrays of 7 Clair i3 line array speakers, augmented by 16 subwoofers. The lot was powered by 160 Lab.gruppen amplifiers which were also hung from the ceiling, and were networked via Dante in a triple-redundant configuration. Two DiGiCo D5 digital mixing consoles served as main and backup for the main audience sound, and two Yamaha PM1Ds handled main and backup duties for monitor mixing. Other equipment included dual-redundant Optocore fibre connections, two Dolby Lake Processors, and time code generated by two pairs of Fairlights which also handled audio cues timed to the action on the field.[35]
Jackson directed sound for the 2010 Shanghai Expo opening ceremony, held on 30 April 2010.[21] He used four Fairlight digital audio systems to replay music cues, connected to Studer routing and distribution gear which supplied signal to Soundcraft digital mixers and an analogue mixer. Some 64 kilometres (40 mi) of fibre optic cable in a dual-redundant star topology connected 72 amplifier racks along both sides of the Huangpu River. Each amp rack held a BSS Audio loudspeaker controller and multiple Crown International amplifiers, pushing audio signal to more than 400 JBL loudspeakers.[36]

Digital audio

Beginning in 1979 between Springsteen tour dates, Jackson crisscrossed the U.S. promoting the Fairlight CMI, a digital sampler made by fellow Australians Peter Vogel and Kim Ryrie. (Ryrie grew up in Point Piper next to Jackson’s house.) The earliest Fairlights were prohibitively expensive, and their 24 kHz sampling rate was not considered high enough for audio mastering, but Jackson found that musicians immediately discovered how useful the Fairlight was for composition. Rick Wakeman explored the sampler, as did Tony Bongiovi, founder of the Power Station recording studio in New York City. There, Springsteen was shown the sampler and said, “Ah yeah, BJ that’s great, but what am I gonna do with it?”[5]
None of Jackson’s prospects bought one in the first year. He had better luck with Herbie Hancock, Stevie Wonder, and Geordie Hormel who bought two for $27,500 each.[5] Wonder, who had recently recorded Stevie Wonder’s Journey Through “The Secret Life of Plants” using a Computer Music Melodian sampler, paid for his Fairlight by signing a personal check with his thumbprint. He then convinced Jackson to mix sound for a tour he was undertaking in support of Secret Life of Plants.[5] Jackson’s close association with Fairlight made him intimately aware of the limitations of early digital audio, “weaknesses” such as noise and inharmonic distortion.[5]
During an April 1985 Springsteen tour leg in Japan, Jackson first listened to Compact Discs played on a CD player connected to his concert sound system, and he did not like what he heard.[5] He felt that there were problems with the implementation of both recording and playback at 16 bits and 44.1 kHz, problems that could be fixed if they could be identified.

Apogee Electronics

After finishing Springsteen’s Born in the U.S.A. tour, Jackson expressed his ideas about possible improvements to digital audio in a conversation with Christof Heidelberger, a designer of digital audio electronics, and Betty Bennett, the president of Soundcraft’s U.S. division. Jackson, Bennett and Heidelberger formed Apogee Electronics in December 1985 (announced in the 23 November issue of Billboard[37]) and started investigating 44 kHz digital audio circuits for audible problems. They found that “textbook filters” which were unnecessarily steep were protecting the CD player output from high levels of 20 kHz signals, an exceedingly unlikely occurrence in music.[5] Jackson determined that Apogee could improve the sound of CDs if the low-pass filters used in the recording process were made less steep, for less phase shift throughout the hearing range.[5] The small company produced better anti-aliasing filters for recording equipment.[38] Initially operating out of his garage, Jackson served as the company’s owner and president, and Bennett headed up sales.[39] They demonstrated their first product at the Audio Engineering Society‘s 81st convention held in Los Angeles in November 1986: the 944 Series low-dispersion, linear phase, active low-pass filter, intended to replace existing filters on multi-track digital tape recorders such as the Sony PCM-3324.[38] After a slow start, the firm sold 30,000 of the filters: “a great success.”[5] The 944 earned a TEC Award in 1988, the first of many such awards for Apogee.[40]

Apogee’s branding was largely Jackson’s doing. Bennett said in 2005 that the company’s decision to sell purple-colored products was one of Jackson’s ideas: “He has a good eye for design, and we wanted to distinguish ourselves from the all-black rack gear that everybody had at that point.”[38] Jackson encouraged a lighting designer from Clair Brothers to sketch a company logo on a cocktail napkin over dinner one evening, and that was immediately made the Apogee logo.[38]
In 1994, Jackson spoke to a Billboard reporter about digital audio. Described as Apogee’s president and chief engineer, he said, “digital is finally living up to the warm, natural sound of analog that we know and love.”[41] A decade later, he warned against the belief that bigger specification numbers guarantee better sound quality. He noted that 192 kHz sampling rate was often cited as being better than 96 kHz because of it being twice as fast “when in reality there’s a whole bunch of other influencing factors responsible for any audible improvements.”[5]
Jackson and his wife divorced in the mid-1990s and he sold his share of Apogee to finance the divorce settlement.[9] Company co-founder Bennett stepped up as CEO.[38]

Loudspeaker management system

After leaving Apogee, Jackson entered into a joint venture with Clair Brothers to design a digital loudspeaker controller for control of complex concert sound systems. Jackson estimated that the project would cost $800,000 in U.S. dollars, but it ended up costing Clair more than $2M.[5] From the same garage in which he started Apogee, Jackson developed the proprietary Clair iO: a two-input, six-output digital audio matrix with opto-isolated output circuits. An essential element of the system was its ability to be controlled by wireless touchpad by an audio engineer walking around to various seating sections in a concert venue, to tailor the system’s response more precisely.[42]

Jackson then joined with Dave McGrath of Lake Technology to produce a commercial version of the controller, the Lake Contour, essentially the same hardware but with different software. McGrath and Jackson acquired Clair Technologies LLC, the earlier joint venture.[9] In turn, Dolby Laboratories bought Lake in 2004, Jackson staying with the product line to become vice president of the live sound division at Dolby, and by 2005 the loudspeaker controller was being used by seven of the ten top concert tours; 3,000 units had been built.[9] Jackson moved back to Sydney in 2005 with Terri—his third wife—and their children,[9] but in November he returned to the U.S. to accept his Parnelli Innovator Award. In 2006, the digital audio product was redesigned and introduced as the Dolby Lake Processor,[10] capable of 4-in, 12-out operation as a loudspeaker crossover; 8-in, 8-out operation as a system equalizer; or a combination of 2 crossovers and 4 equalizers—the whole integrated with Smaart audio analysis software.[43] A collaboration between Dolby and Swedish audio electronics company Lab.gruppen was announced in 2007; Jackson’s technology would be incorporated into Lab.gruppen’s Powered Loudspeaker Management (PLM) system.[44] Two years later, Lab.gruppen acquired the Lake brand for further development of the PLM and other product lines. John Carey of Dolby said, “As we pass the live sound torch to Lab.gruppen we are confident that they will continue to innovate and evolve the technology and brand many have grown to love in this industry.”[45]


Jackson was an avid pilot, licensed to fly from early adulthood. He flew often, for pleasure, one of the few concert audio engineers who did.[46] In the 1970s between Presley concert dates, Jackson flew the singer’s personal jet airliner, a converted Convair 880 named Lisa Marie after Presley’s daughter.[46] For Presley’s band rehearsals at Graceland, Jackson would fly some 800 miles (1,300 km) from Lititz to Memphis with the back of a small plane loaded with assorted mic stands, cables and monitor loudspeakers. The band would rehearse for a bit in Graceland’s racquetball court, then hang out in the Jungle Room waiting for Presley who rarely came downstairs.[5]
A small aircraft owner, at one time Jackson operated a 1975 Grumman American AA-5B Tiger. In 1979 he sold it to his lighting company friend, Tait Towers founder Michael Tait, to pay for an earlier purchase of a more powerful aircraft, a new Mooney M20J that he registered 7 December 1978.[2][47] Jackson used the M20J to carry Fairlight samplers across the U.S. to demonstrate them to studios and musicians, once flying from New York to Los Angeles in 15 hours after he heard Herbie Hancock was interested.[5] Interviewed in 2005 at his Sydney office, Jackson said he missed his “little plane” terribly, that it was kept in a hangar for his use whenever he visited California,[5] surrounded by dusty boxes of audio gear and stored memorabilia.[21] He said he had considered flying it from California to Australia but his wife was “not too keen on the idea.”[5]
Jackson was interested in aviation developments. In mid-2010 he flew himself and a friend to Mojave Air and Space Port to see Virgin Galactic‘s VSS Enterprise, a sub-orbital spacecraft being glide-tested.[21]

[edit] Death

Jackson landed his Mooney at Furnace Creek Airport (the lowest elevation airstrip in North America) near the visitor center of Death Valley National Park early in the afternoon of 29 January 2011.[48][49] He had no flight plan filed. Following a brief stop he took off in clear, sunny weather bound for Santa Monica, but a few minutes later he crashed and died about 6.5 miles (11 km) south of the airfield in a dry lake bed.[2][49] The wreckage was discovered by park rangers on the morning of 31 January, and was later examined by investigators who did not determine a cause for the accident.[49] Jackson was survived by his third wife, Terri, their daughter Brianna, and Aja, Jackson’s stepdaughter. Jackson was also survived by his second wife, Ruth Davis, and their son Lindsey and daughter Alex.[2] He was also survived by his first wife Margaret who he married when they were in their teens. She met him at the University of New South Wales, was with him when he started Jands, and accompanied him to the U.S. when he went to work for Clair.
A memorial celebration of Jackson’s life was held 25 February at the Sydney Opera House.[46] Some 500 attendees listened to remembrances and anecdotes from family members and from business colleagues such as Roy Clair and David McGrath. Prerecorded videos were played, sent from Springsteen, the band U2,[13] Streisand and her manager Martin Erlichman, and members of Fleetwood Mac.[12]

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Nora Sun, Chinese-born American diplomat, businesswoman and author, granddaughter of Sun Yat-sen, died from injuries from a car crash he was , 72.

Nora Sun was a Chinese American diplomat, businesswoman, and granddaughter of Republic of China founder Sun Yat-sen  died from injuries from a car crash he was , 72.. She was the founder of the Hong Kong based Nora Sun Associates and a longtime resident of Shanghai, San Francisco, and Hong Kong.[1] Chinese-American entrepreneur Yue-Sai Kan called Nora Sun “Sino-US trade matchmaker”.[2]

(August 6, 1937 – January 29, 2011)



  • Nora Sun. An album in memory of Dr. Sun Yat-sen : a great man and epoch-maker (10/1/2001 ed.). Nanjing University Press. pp. 245. ISBN 7305037605.

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Emanuel Vardi, Israeli-born American violist, died from cancer he was , 95

Emanuel Vardi  an Israeli-American violist, was considered to have been one of the great viola players of the 20th century, died from cancer he was , 95.

(21 April 1915  – 29 January 2011)

Early life

Emanuel Vardi was born April 21, 1915 in Jerusalem. His mother, Anna Joffa Vardi, had a piano studio with many students and started Emanuel on piano at about age 3. His father, Joseph Vardi had a violin studio and also started his son out on his instrument at about the age of 3. The family came to the United States in 1920 via Paris, France, aboard a ship called “”the Asia” to escape the pogroms in the Middle East.
He continued studying both piano and violin until about age 7, when he forwent piano to focus on violin. He played Mozart’s Fantasy in D-minor at a recital at age 9. The next day the New York Herald Tribune came out with an article by Charles Isaacson where he said, “Keep a lookout for this future pianist”.
At age 12, his father found out about the Juilliard School, and filled out a submission form which was accepted. Then when they showed up for the audition, the jury expected his father to play. But his father pointed to Emanuel and said “no, he will be the one playing”. They accepted Emanuel, but since the age limit was 16, he was sent to the Institute of Musical Art, where he studied under Constance Seeger, mother of folk singer Pete Seeger.

Around age 14, Constance got him into the private Walden School, since the public schools wouldn’t allow him sufficient daily practice time. She arranged for him to have 2 to 3 hours of practice daily. While there he was dubbed Mani by one of his teachers, Mr. Hill.
About age 15, Emanuel dropped out of school for a time as a sort of teenage rebellion and lived with his friend Zack Baratz. Constance noticed he wasn’t in school, coaxed him to return to his studies and then he was invited to return to Juilliard.


In 1942, Vardi received the “Recitalist of the Year” award from the New York music critics for the best New York recital following his Town Hall debut.
He had the distinction of being asked to perform a solo recital at the White House for President Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II.
Vardi is one of one two violists in the world to have ever given a solo recital in Carnegie Hall.
He taught at the Manhattan School of Music and Temple University.
In crossing musical genres of classical and jazz, he toured and performed with jazz greats such as Louis Armstrong and Al Hirt.
In the early 1960s, Vardi worked for Audio Fidelity Records in New York as producer.
In 1985, Vardi was featured in a full-length article in Strad Magazine, and in 2003 he was honored with a lengthy interview in the American Viola Society Journal, with his painting “Homage to a Great Violist” appearing on the front cover.
Due to an accident in 1993, Vardi lost the use of his shoulder, forcing him to retire from the viola. After his accident Vardi continued with his painting and art endeavors. Emanuel Vardi died at the age of 95 on January 29th of 2011.

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Raymond Cohen, British violinist died he was , 91.

Raymond Cohen  was an English classical violinist died he was , 91..

(27 July 1919 – 28 January 2011)


Early life and education

Born in 27 July 1919 in Manchester into a musical family (his father being his first violin teacher) and educated at Manchester Grammar School. At the age of fifteen he won the Adolph Brodsky scholarship to the Manchester College of Music. There he studied with Henry Holst, former leader of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, and was soon recognized as a soloist of extraordinary promise. It was not long before he began playing in the Halle Orchestra as their youngest ever member.


Two summers were spent leading an orchestra in Blackpool where he gained an enormous amount of experience and pleasure playing music ranging from “The White Horse Inn” to Beethoven symphonies and appearing twice a week as soloist. With the war looming, and whilst still at college, he appeared as soloist in concerts and broadcasts throughout the North of England; and to crown all this, at the age of 19 he played the Bach, Mendelssohn and Brahms concertos with the Halle Orchestra in one memorable evening. A few weeks later he was in the army.
He spent 6 years in the Royal Corps of Signals Band, playing the clarinet but still practising the violin at every available opportunity, learning new repertoire, and even playing the odd movement of a violin concerto (Mendelssohn’s in e minor) with the Band. By the time he was demobilized, he had a repertoire of nearly 40 violin concertos. Whilst still in uniform he won the first Carl Flesch International Violin Competition. This brought him to the notice of the musical world and soon led to concerts and recitals all over Britain and Europe.
By this time he was living in London, and alongside his solo career, was always in demand as a chamber music player and orchestral leader as well as a teacher. He was a professor at the Royal College of Music and continues to teach privately. He was leader of the Goldsborough Orchestra (later to become the English Chamber Orchestra) and led most of the country’s leading chamber orchestras as well as the Philharmonia, the London Symphony and BBC Symphony Orchestras. In 1959, at the invitation of Sir Thomas Beecham, he was appointed leader of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. He held that position for six years. One of the highlights of that period was his appearance as soloist at the Royal Festival Hall with the RPO and Beecham in the Goldmark concerto.
During the six years as leader he was still in demand as soloist and after leaving the orchestra he extended this area of his career. He appeared as soloist and recitalist with his wife Anthya Rael, in countries as far flung as the USA, New Zealand, Russia, and South Africa, as well as appearing frequently in Britain and Europe. He was soloist with such conductors as Barbirolli, Sargent, Kletski, Kempe, Monteux, Boult and Beecham, and among his “firsts” were the first performance in Britain of the Kabalevsky concerto and the Shostakovich sonata, the first performance of the Skalkottas concerto in the composer’s native Greece (Athens Festival), the first artist to appear on British television playing a violin concerto (the Mendelssohn), and the first performance on video in England of Vivaldi’s Four Seasons.

Marriage and children

In 1953 he married the pianist Anthya Rael. She had come from her native South Africa to study with the legendary pianist and teacher Illona Kabos. They have two children; Gillian is a violinist and Robert, an internationally renowned cellist. Raymond and Robert have given duo recitals and appeared together in the Brahms Double concerto; Anthya joined them to form the Cohen Trio. in 1993 Raymond was featured in a BBC radio programme called “The Musical World of Raymond Cohen” in which the entire family took part.


RAYMOND COHEN AND ANTHYA RAEL Beethoven Ten Sonatas for Violin and Piano Op.12,23,24,30,47,96 Meridian Records
Dvorak Four Romantic Pieces CRD Records
THE COHEN TRIO Dvorak The Complete Piano Trios Op21,26,65,90 CRD Records

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Dariush Homayoon, Iranian politician and journalist, Minister of Information and Tourism (1977–1978), died he was , 82

Daryoush Homayoun  was an Iranian journalist, author, intellectual, and politician  died he was , 82. He was the Minister of Information and Tourism in the cabinet of Jamshid Amouzegar, founder of the daily newspaper Ayandegan, and one-time high-ranking member of the Rastakhiz party. In exile he became one of the founders of the Constitutionalist Party of Iran. He was famous for his analytical writings and largely impartial assessment of history. His outspoken manner, criticizing the Islamic Republic with harsh tones, but also directing his criticism at the Pahlavi policies, earned him respect of many, while at the same time creating many enemies. He was one of the most influential Iranian opposition leaders in exile.

(27 September 1928 – 28 January 2011)


Homayoun was born in Tehran on 27 September 1928 and began his involvement in the political sphere at the age of fourteen. In his younger years he was member of several Iranian parties, generally with nationalist views opposing the rise of leftist ideas and the influence of the Tudeh party, such as SUMKA. He began as a supporter of Mohammad Mossadegh but was imprisoned during Mossadegh’s premiership.

Journalistic and political career

In the years following 1953, Homayoun finished his university studies, obtaining a doctorate in political science from the University of Tehran. He worked at the Iranian daily Ettelaat and later founded the highly successful daily newspaper Ayandegan. In the cabinet of Jamshid Amouzegar, he became the minister of information and tourism. Following the events leading up to the Iranian Revolution, he was arrested in the autumn of 1978, together with many other former officials whom the monarchy tried to use as scapegoats in order to prevent its own eventual downfall. He escaped prison on February 12, 1979, just after the revolution, and went into hiding. Fifteen months later, he left Iran through the border with Turkey and went to Paris.


In exile, Homayoun, was an influential political analyst, writer, and opposition leader. In the nineties he initiated and helped create the Constitutionalist Party of Iran, a political party seeking to establish a liberal democrat Iran.


Daryoush Homayoun died on 28 January 2011 in Geneva, Switzerland at the age of 82.

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Megan McNeil, Canadian singer, died from adrenal cancer she was , 20.

Megan McNeil  was a Canadian singer from North Delta, British Columbia, Canada died from adrenal cancer she was , 20.. She was the only child of Dave and Suzanne McNeil and was diagnosed in 2006 with Adrenalcortical Carcinoma, a rare type of adrenal cancer when she was just 16. She studied at Seaquam Secondary and graduated   in  2008. She also attended Kwantlen Polytechnic University in Surrey   for  Sciences. She beat cancer three times, but succumbed during her   fourth  battle.[1]

(September 7, 1990 – January 28, 2011)

“The Will to Survive”

   Megan McNeil gained media attention when she recorded a charity single written by her entitled The Will to Survive[2] as a tribute to tens of thousands of cancer-fighting children and youth. The lyrics include:

  Here’s to the fight

  Here’s to the fighters

  Here’s to the brave that take this on

  Here’s to the lost souls

  Here’s to the new hope

  We’ll keep on keeping on

Megan   McNeil wrote the lyrics in 2006 just 2 months after being  diagnosed   with cancer. The song was recorded in 2010 at Nimbus School of    Recording Arts with producer Garth Richardson.[3] The song was arranged by Ryan McMahon. A music video was shot by    director Tash Baycroft. The proceeds from the single went to childhood    cancer organizations.


She died on January 28, 2011 in the company of family and friends after battling the disease for 4 years.[4]

In popular media

  • Her   story touched millions across Canada and the United States  through   many media appearances in promoting childhood cancer awareness  and the   British Columbia Childhood Cancer Parents’ Association (BCCCPA)  and The   James Fund[5] charities. She also appeared in features in Europe.[6]

  • CTV Television Network‘s program Canada AM selected McNeil’s story one of the best of 2010

  • CBC News selected hers as the most inspirational story of the year in Canada

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Dame Margaret Price, British soprano, died from heart failure she was , 69.

 Dame Margaret Berenice Price, DBE  was a Welsh soprano died from heart failure she was , 69..

(13 April 1941 – 28 January 2011)[1]

Early years

Price was born in Blackwood, Wales. Born with deformed legs, she was operated on at age four and suffered pain in her legs the rest of her life. She often looked after her younger brother John who was born with a mental handicap.[2] The family had ties in Cardigan and north Pembrokeshire and often spent their summer holiday in Moylegrove .[3]

Her father, a talented amateur pianist, was opposed to a musical career, and hence she never attended a young Eisteddfod and was aiming for a career as a biology teacher. She was educated at Pontllanfraith Secondary School, near Caerphilly. At 15, her school music teacher organised an audition with Charles Kennedy Scott, who convinced her to study with him at Trinity College of Music in London and obtained a scholarship for her. Over the next few years, Price was trained as a mezzo soprano.[2][4]


After graduation, she joined the Ambrosian Singers, performing with them on the soundtrack of the 1961 Charlton Heston film El Cid.[2]
Unrecognised through the normal channel of competitions, she was championed by her now-converted father, who wrote to opera houses to arrange auditions. As a result, Price made her operatic debut in 1962, singing Cherubino in Mozart‘s The Marriage of Figaro at the Welsh National Opera.[2]
After her father wrote to the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden in 1962, she auditioned and was turned down twice by musical director Georg Solti who said that she “lacked charm”.[2] However, she was accepted as an understudy, thanks to casting director Joan Ingpen, and she formed of a close personal and professional relationship with composer James Lockhart.[2] Solti added a rider to her contract, stating that she should never expect to sing lead in the main house, so she sang minor roles as a mezzo.[2] Her breakthrough came in 1963 when Teresa Berganza cancelled a performance and Price got the chance to take over as her nominated understudy, again in the role of Cherubino, a performance that made her famous overnight.[4]
After that, Lockhart convinced Price to take further singing lessons to improve her technique and develop the luminous high range that made her one of the most popular lyric sopranos of the 1970s and 1980s.
In 1967, she performed with Benjamin Britten’s English Opera Group in The Impresario, and as Titania in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. In 1968, critic Desmond Shawe-Taylor called her singing “brilliant, flexible and large scale” as Constanze in Mozart’s Die Entführung aus dem Serail at Glyndebourne.[2]
As Price did not enjoy travelling, she always kept a “home” stage, where she stayed and performed for the majority of each year. Initially this was Covent Garden, but from 1971 she made Germany her base, initially at Cologne Opera where she made her debut in Don Giovanni, and latterly the Bavarian State Opera in Munich, where she lived until retirement in 1999.[4] Price hence formed a professional relationship with Otto Klemperer, who conducted her first recording of a major role in a complete opera – Fiordiligi in Mozart’s Così fan tutte. The 1972 recording established Price as a Mozart specialist.[5]
In the years that followed, Price appeared as a guest at important opera houses. Her Metropolitan Opera debut came in 1985 as Desdemona in Verdi‘s Otello.
In 1989 she appeared in the WNO production of Salome at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in New York, in a performance attended by the Prince and Princess of Wales.[6]


Price was most famous for her Mozart portraits, especially Fiordiligi, Donna Anna in Don Giovanni, the Contessa in The Marriage of Figaro (after having sung Cherubino and Barbarina at the beginning of her career), and Pamina in The Magic Flute. Additionally, she sang Verdi roles, such as Amelia (Un ballo in maschera, a role she also recorded with Luciano Pavarotti), Elisabetta (Don Carlos) and Desdemona (Otello), her debut role at the Met, as well as Aida (also with Pavarotti in San Francisco, which was preserved on video), Richard Strauss‘s Ariadne (Ariadne auf Naxos) and Adriana Lecouvreur by Cilea.
Price was also very active as a lieder singer, equally at home in the romantic idiom of Franz Schubert and Robert Schumann or Richard Strauss and the Second Viennese School.
During her career, Price made many recordings of operas and of lieder. One of her most famous recordings is the Isolde in Carlos Kleiber‘s complete recording of Richard Wagner‘s Tristan und Isolde, a role she never sang on stage. She was a Kammersängerin of the Bavarian State Opera.

[edit] Later years

Price retired to a 160-year-old farmhouse on Ceibwr Bay, part of Moylegrove near Cardigan, Ceredigion, overlooking the Irish Sea. From there, she successfully bred and showed Golden Retrievers, having the rear seats of her Chrysler removed to create what she termed a “dogmobile.”[2] She came out of retirement once to perform at a Poppy day concert at her local church, something she later commented on: “It was the most nerve-racking occasion of my life. Never again will I sing in public.”[2]
Price was made Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) for her services to music in 1993.[7]
Price died on 28 January 2011 from heart failure at her home in Ceibwr, aged 69.[2][3][4]


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Guilty! Dog Video

Now Thats Funny!!!!


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