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Archive for April 9, 2011

Sidney Harth, American violinist and conductor, died from respiratory complications he was , 85.

Sidney Harth  was an American violinist and conductor died from respiratory complications he was , 85..

(October 5, 1925 – February 15, 2011[1])

In 1957 Harth became the first American to receive the Laureate Prize in the Wieniawski Violin Competition held in Poland. He had made his European debut previously, touring France with pianist Theodore Lettvin in 1951-1952 in a concert series organized by the National Music League and the Jeunesses Musicales International.[2] Harth performed with major orchestras across the world, and made numerous recordings with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Krakow Radio and Television Orchestra.[3]
Harth was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He graduated from the Cleveland Institute of Music and studied with Joseph Knitzer, Michel Piastro and Georges Enesco. Since then, he has held faculty positions at University of Louisville, the University of Houston, the University of Texas, Yale University, and the Mannes College of Music.
He was Concertmaster of the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Principal Concertmaster and Associate Conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra, and Concertmaster and Assistant Conductor of the Louisville Orchestra. He was initiated as an honorary member of the Zeta Kappa chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity, the national fraternity for men in music, in 1958 and was selected as a National Honorary member of the Fraternity in 1966.[citation needed]
An acclaimed conductor, Harth was during his career Principal Conductor of the Natal Philharmonic Orchestra in South Africa, and Musical Director of the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, Northwest Chamber Orchestra of Seattle and the Puerto Rico Symphony Orchestra.
Harth was at onetime a faculty member of the Yale School of Music. He also was Head of the School of Music at Carnegie Mellon University, where he also taught violin and chamber music. Until the time of his death on the 15 February 2011, Harth was the Director of Orchestral Activities at Duquesne University Mary Pappert School of Music.[4]

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David F. Friedman, American film producer (Blood Feast), died from heart failure he was , 87

David Frank Friedman  was an American filmmaker and film producer died from heart failure he was , 87.

 

(December 24, 1923 – February 14, 2011)

 

Life and career

Friedman first became interested in entertainment after spending parts of his childhood in Birmingham and Anniston, Alabama. traveling carnival sites. He met exploitation film pioneer Kroger Babb during his stay in the Army. This encounter got him interested in films. Working as a regional marketing man for Paramount he sensed the money in independent distributing and started his own company in the 1950s. His company mainly produced so-called Nudie Cuties, films such as Goldilocks and The Three Bares shot in nudist colonies being the closest thing to pornography legally available back then. This trend was followed by the sexploitation and “Roughie” genres, depicting simulated sex with a more violent edge, often horror- or crime-related. Examples of Friedman’s roughies are The Defilers (1965),[2] The Lustful Turk (1968), The Head Mistress (1968) and The Adult Version Of Jekyll and Hide (1971, directed by Byron Mabe).[3] Helming one of those movies Friedman started his working relationship with Chicago based teacher and film maker Herschell Gordon Lewis.
Friedman went on to produce the latter’s 1963 film Blood Feast, an American exploitation film often considered the first “gore” or splatter film. He was also the producer of two of the first Nazi exploitation films, Love Camp 7 (1969)[4] and Ilsa: She-Wolf of the SS (1974), for which he refused to use his real name and was credited as Herman Traeger.[5][6]
With the advent of hard core porn as a commercial factor in the mid 1970s, Friedman began to slow down his output. His work ethic “Sell the sizzle not the steak” would not comply with actual intercourse shown on screen. Still he was president of an organization of Adult Film Makers.[7]
In the early 1990s, Seattle’s Something Weird Video, owned by Mike Vraney, started to re-issue the work of David Friedman, getting him the attention of a new generation exploitation and b-movie collectors. He can be heard on the audio commentary track of some of the company’s releases. In 2000, Friedman was featured alongside cult filmmakers Roger Corman, Doris Wishman, Harry Novak and others in the documentary SCHLOCK! The Secret History of American Movies, a film about the rise and fall of American exploitation cinema.
In 2001, he co-starred with long time business partner Dan Sonney in the documentary Mau Mau Sex Sex (IMDb entry).
Friedman died in Anniston, Alabama on February 14, 2011 at the age of 87.

Further reading

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Catherine Masters, British supercentenarian, third-oldest living person in the UK, last living person born in Scotland in the 19th century died she was , 111.

Catherine Murray Millar Masters  was a British supercentenarian who became the last living person who was born in Scotland during the 19th century and the Victorian era died she was , 111..

( 23 November 1899 – 14 February 2011)

She was born in Dundee, the daughter of David Lyall Cromb (1875–1961),[1] an editor of the local Courier newspaper.[2] The family moved to London in 1908 (or 1909[1]) where her father eventually changed his career path to liteary agent.[2] Masters married twice, had a son, two grandchildren and three great-grandchildren.[3]
She married John McInnes in 1921 in London,[2] who worked for a tea importing company,[4] but McInnes died in 1962, and their son died of cancer in 1968. Her marriage to her second husband, Albert Masters, lasted from 1972 to his death in 1993. Following this she lived with one of her grandsons before he emigrated to South Africa in 2006.
A complaint to Buckingham Palace in 2009 that she had received a birthday card with the same design for five consecutive years led to a 40 minute visit, and a reported apology,[5] from Prince William[3] at the Grange Care Centre in Stanford-in-the-Vale, Oxfordshire, where she lived from around 2006.[6]
At the end of her life, Masters was the oldest living person born in Scotland and the third oldest person in the United Kingdom.[3] She died from complications following an operation to insert a heart pacemaker.[7

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Sir George Shearing, British-born American jazz pianist (Lullaby of Birdland), died from heart failure he was , 91.

Sir George Shearing, OBE was an Anglo-American jazz pianist who for many years led a popular jazz group that recorded for MGM Records and Capitol Records died from heart failure he was , 91. The composer of over 300 titles, he had multiple albums on the Billboard charts during the 1950s, 1960s, 1980s and 1990s.[1]
He became known for a piano technique known as “Shearing’s voicing,” a type of double melody block chord, with an additional fifth part that doubles the melody an octave lower. Shearing credited the Glenn Miller Orchestra‘s reed section of the late 1930s and early 1940s as an important influence.
Shearing’s interest in classical music resulted in some performances with concert orchestras in the 1950s and 1960s, and his solos frequently drew upon the music of Satie, Delius and Debussy for inspiration.
He died of heart failure on February 14, 2011 in New York City, at the age of 91.

(August 13, 1919 – February 14, 2011)

Early life

Born in Battersea, London, Shearing was the youngest of nine children. He was born blind to working class parents: his father delivered coal and his mother cleaned trains in the evening. He started to learn piano at the age of three and began formal training at Linden Lodge School for the Blind, where he spent four years.[2]
Though offered several scholarships, Shearing opted to perform at a local pub, the Mason’s Arms in Lambeth, for “25 bob a week”[3] playing piano and accordion. He even joined an all-blind band during that time and was influenced by the albums of Teddy Wilson and Fats Waller.[1] He made his first BBC radio appearance during this time after befriending Leonard Feather, with whom he started recording in 1937.[2] In 1940, Shearing joined Harry Parry‘s popular band and contributed to the comeback of Stéphane Grappelli. Shearing won seven consecutive Melody Maker polls during this time. Around that time he was also a member of George Evans‘s Saxes ‘n’ Sevens band.

U.S. years

In 1947, Shearing emigrated to the United States, where his harmonically complex style mixed swing, bop and modern classical influences. One of his first performances in the US was at the Hickory House. He performed with the Oscar Pettiford Trio and led a quartet with Buddy DeFranco, which led to contractual problems since Shearing was under contract with MGM and DeFranco with Capitol Records. In 1949, he formed the first ‘George Shearing Quintet’, a band with Margie Hyams (vibraphone), Chuck Wayne (guitar), later replaced by Toots Thielemans (listed as John Tillman—), John Levy (bass) and Denzil Best (drums) and recorded for Discovery, Savoy and MGM, including the immensely popular single “September in the Rain” (MGM), which sold over 900,000 copies; “my other hit” to accompany “Lullaby of Birdland“. Shearing himself would write of this hit that it was “as accidental as it could be.”[3]
In 1956, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.[3] He continued to play with his quintet, with augmented players through the years, and recorded with Capitol until 1969. He created his own label, Sheba, that lasted a few years. Along with dozens of musical stars of his day, Shearing appeared on ABC‘s The Pat Boone Chevy Showroom.

Later career

In 1970 he began to “phase out his by-now-predictable quintet”[1] and disbanded the group in 1978. One of his more notable albums during this period was The Reunion, with George Shearing (Verve 1976), made in collaboration with bassist Andy Simpkins and drummer Rusty Jones, and featuring Stéphane Grappelli, the musician with whom he had debuted as a sideman decades before. Later, Shearing played with a trio, as a soloist and increasingly in a duo. Among his collaborations were sets with the Montgomery Brothers, Marian McPartland, Brian Q. Torff, Jim Hall, Hank Jones and Kenny Davern. In 1979, Shearing signed with Concord Records, and recorded for the label with Mel Tormé. This collaboration garnered Shearing and Tormé two Grammys, one in 1983 and another in 1984.

Personal life

Shearing was married twice, first to the former Trixie Bayes, with whom he was married from 1941 to 1973. Two years after his divorce he married his second wife, the singer Ellie Geffert. Geffert survived him after he died in 2011.[4]

Awards & honors

  • In 1993, received the Ivor Novello Awards for Lifetime Achievement.
  • In 1994, received honorary degree of Doctor of Music from Hamilton College in New York.
  • In 1996, was included in the Queens Birthday Honours List and was invested by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire for his “service to music and Anglo-US relations”.
  • In 1998, received the first American Music Award by the National Arts Club, New York City.
  • In 2002, received an honorary degree of Doctor of Music from DePauw University in Indiana.
  • In 2003, received the “Lifetime Achievement Award” from BBC Jazz Awards.[5]
  • In 2007, was knighted for services to music.

Discography

Filmography

  • 2003: George Shearing – Jazz Legend
  • 2004: George Shearing: Lullaby of Birdland[6]
  • 2004: Swing Era – George Shearing
  • 2004: Joe Williams with George Shearing: A Song is Born[7]
  • 2005: Duo Featuring Neil Swainson

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Oakley Hall III, American playwright, died from a heart attack. he was , 60.

Oakley “Tad” Hall III was an American playwright, director, and author died from a heart attack. he was , 60.. The eldest child of novelist Oakley Hall and photographer Barbara E. Hall, at age 28 he was a rising star in the New York theatre scene. In the mid-1970s, his play Mike Fink was optioned by Joseph Papp of the Public Theatre. Oakley founded and was the artistic director of the legendary Lexington Conservatory Theatre in upstate New York, where his plays Grinder’s Stand and Beatrice (Cenci) and the Old Man, and his stage adaptation of Frankenstein, enjoyed their première productions. Lexington Conservatory Theatre moved to Albany in 1979 and continues operating today as Albany Rep.

(May 26, 1950 – February 13, 2011) 

In 1978, Oakley suffered traumatic and massive head injuries in a fall from a bridge. He eventually returned to California to live in Nevada City near his family; there his play Grinder’s Stand, which he had been writing at the time of his accident, was produced by the Foothill Theatre Company, directed by Philip Sneed. The story of this production, entwined with Oakley’s fall and the slow process of creating a new life, are movingly told in Bill Rose’s award-winning documentary, The Loss of Nameless Things.[4].
Oakley made a life-long study of the pre-surrealist playwright, Alfred Jarry, and over the years translated several of Jarry’s plays from the original French. In 2008, Hall moved to Albany, New York, to live with Hadiya Wilborn, who fostered a collaboration with acclaimed puppeteer Ed Atkeson. This resulted in a production of one of those translated plays, Ubu Rex, performed by the Firlefanz Puppets at Steamer No. 10 Theatre in Albany, New York, directed by Oakley, with Steven Patterson in the title role. In the fall of 2010, Moving Finger Press published Oakley’s novel, Jarry and Me, in which Oakley intertwines a memoir of his own life with a sly “autobiography” of Jarry. One of the last sentences of the book is, “Jarry dies with a grin on his face.”
Oakley was survived by his two children, Oakley and Elizabeth, his mother, Barbara E. Hall, his sisters Sands Hall, Tracy Hall, and Brett Hall Jones, four loving nephews and a niece—Justin, Nico, Hunter, Dashiell, and Emma—and his chérie, Hadiya Wilborn.
Some of Oakley Hall III’s writings are available to read online at http://www.absintheurpress.com, in a collection which is continually being supplemented.

[edit] Cultural references

Hall has been mentioned in music, including The Tigersharks‘ “The Ballad of Oakley Hall III,” and poetry, including B. Elliott Crist‘s “Tad”.

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T. P. McKenna, Irish actor (The Avengers, Doctor Who) died he was , 81.

Thomas Patrick McKenna  known professionally as T. P. McKenna, was an Irish actor who worked on stage, in film and television in Ireland and the UK from the 1950s died he was , 81..

(7 September 1929 – 13 February 2011)

Film and television

McKenna was born in Mullagh, County Cavan. During the 1960s and 1970s he appeared regularly in popular television dramas, including The Avengers (1964, 1965, 1968), Dangerman (1965), The Saint (1966, 1968), Adam Adamant Lives! (1967), Jason King (1972), The Sweeney (1975), Blake’s 7 (1978), Minder (1984) and in the Doctor Who serial The Greatest Show in the Galaxy.
He played Richmond in the Thames Television series Callan (1972) and made a dozen appearances in Crown Court (1974–1982), mainly as barrister Patrick Canty, while also appearing in the popular ATV anthology drama series Love Story (1965-1968).
He also featured prominently in other television dramas including The Duchess of Malfi (1972), The Changeling (1974), Napoleon and Love (1974), Holocaust (1978), The Manions of America (1981), To The Lighthouse (1982), Bleak House (1985), Strong Medicine (1986), Jack the Ripper (1988), Shoot to Kill (1990) and the final episode of Inspector Morse (2000).
He also had prominent film roles in Ulysses (1967), Sam Peckinpah‘s film Straw Dogs (1971) where he appeared alongside Dustin Hoffman and A Portrait of the Artist As A Young Man (1977). He was considered one of Ireland’s finest Joycean actors and narrated the Emmy-winning documentary Is There One Who Understands Me (RTE, 1982).

Theatre

On stage he appeared with leading theatre companies, including the Abbey Theatre, Dublin, the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal National Theatre Company. His West End debut was as Cranly in Stephen D at the St Martin’s Theatre in 1963.
In 1969 he created the role of Fitzpatrick in David Storey’s ‘The Contractor’ directed by Lindsay Anderson at the Royal Court Theatre, London. The production later transferred to the Fortune Theatre and ran for over a year.
In 1973 to took on the role of Andrew Wyke opposite his friend Donally Donnelly in the Irish premiere of Peter Shaffer’s ‘Sleuth’. The production played to acclaim in both Dublin and Cork and it broke the box office record for the Olympia Theatre.
Later that year he joined the Royal Shakespeare Company and took over the role of Roberts Hands in James Joyce’s only play, ‘Exiles’ directed by Harold Pinter. In the same season he also appeared in a rare staging of Jean Genet’s ‘The Balcony’ directed by Terry Hands.
He returned to the RSC in 1976 for Shaw’s ‘The Devil’s Disciple’ directed by Jack Gold in a production to mark the American bicentennial celebrations as the revolutionary pastor Revd. Anderson.
In the late 1980s and 1990s he had the opportunity of making a return to the Dublin stage when he was invited by director Michael Colgan to join the Gate Theatre on a number of occasions including admired productions of Uncle Vanya and No Mans Land. It was there that he also created the role of Dr. Rice in Brian Friel’s drama, Molly Sweeney, and again at London’s Almeida Theatre. Other Friel productions he appeared in were The Communication Cord (Hampstead Theatre, 1984) and The Aristocrats (2004) at the RNT in his final stage appearance.
He also directed on occasion, and had productions of J. M. Synge‘s The Playboy of the Western World (Nottingham Playhouse, 1968), Thomas Kilroy‘s The Death and Resurrection of Mr. Roche (Abbey Theatre, 1973) and Seán O’Casey‘s The Shadow of A Gunman (Crucible Theatre, Sheffield, 1980) to his credit.
McKenna was also a distinguished and instantly recognisable voice on countless radio dramas for BBC Radio and the World Service. He took the role of Phonsie Doherty in Christopher Fitz-simon’s Radio 4 comedy series, Ballylennon and also appeared opposite David Threlfall in the radio drama Baldi.
He died at the Royal Free Hospital in London and is laid to rest alongside his wife, May, at Teampall Cheallaigh by the shores of Mullagh Lake in Co.Cavan.[4]

Selected filmography

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James Elliott, British-born Australian actor (Number 96), died from Lewy body dementia , he was 82.

James “Jimmy” Elliott  was a Scottish-born Australian theatre and television actor best known for his long-running role of Alf Sutcliffe in the 1970s television soap opera Number 96 died from Lewy body dementia , he was  82..

(11 June 1928 – 12 February 2011)

Elliott was an original cast member of Number 96 which premiered March 1972. The show became Australia’s highest-rated television program in 1973 and 1974. Alf and his wife Lucy (Elisabeth Kirkby) were immigrants from Yorkshire, England and Alf was presented as an archetypal “whinging Pom” who complained constantly about Australia while proving himself incapable of holding down a job. He also endured Lucy’s series of dramatic health concerns which included a breast cancer scare, blindness, and an unplanned pregnancy followed by a troubled birth, where he proved himself somewhat kind and understanding. In late 1973 the show had a feature film spin-off featuring much of the show’s current cast, including Elliott, reprising their television roles.
Prior to Number 96 Elliott had acted in Australian radio plays and serials, made several guest appearances in Australian television series including Consider Your Verdict and The Link Men, and he played Guildenstern in an Australian Broadcasting Corporation television production of the play Hamlet—this production being the first Shakespearean drama produced on Australian television. Other Shakespearean roles included Capulet in Romeo and Juliet for the Sydney University Players, and a supporting role in an Australian Broadcasting Corporation television production of The Tempest. Elliott also had a role in the feature film Ned Kelly (1970).
Despite once describing the serial as “instant television”, Elliot played in Number 96 continuously for almost four years. In October 1975 Alf and Lucy were written out of Number 96 as part of a drastic remodelling of the show in the wake of declining ratings. Elliott subsequently made guest appearances on Australian drama series such as Solo One (1976), Glenview High (1977), Chopper Squad (1978), played in three episodes of legal drama Case for the Defence (1978), and later appeared in an episode of crime drama Bellamy (1981). He also acted in feature films Summer City (1977), Money Movers (1978), Little Boy Lost (1978), Lady Stay Dead (1981), Brothers (1982).
Later television guest appearances include three episodes of medical drama All Saints, in 2001 and 2003.
James Elliott died peacefully on Saturday evening, 12 February 2011. He was survived by two sons with his first wife Mary, and one son by his second wife Elaine.

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Betty Garrett, American actress (On the Town, All in the Family, Laverne & Shirley), died from a aortic aneurysm she was , 91.

Betty Garrett  was an American actress, comedienne, singer and dancer who originally performed on Broadway before being signed to a film contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer died from a aortic aneurysm she was , 91.. While there, she appeared in several musical films before returning to Broadway and making guest appearances on several television series.
Later, she became known for the roles she played in two prominent 1970s sitcoms: Archie Bunker‘s liberal neighbor Irene Lorenzo in All in the Family and landlady Edna Babish in Laverne & Shirley.
In later years, Garrett appeared in television series such as Grey’s Anatomy, Boston Public and Becker as well as in several Broadway plays and revivals.

(May 23, 1919 – February 12, 2011)  

Early life

Garrett was born in Saint Joseph, Missouri. Shortly after her birth, her parents relocated to Seattle, Washington, where her mother, Octavia, managed the sheet music department in Sherman Clay, while her father, Curtis, worked as a traveling salesman. His alcoholism and inability to handle finances eventually led to their divorce, and Garrett and her mother lived in a series of residential hotels in order to curtail expenses.[1]

When Garrett was eight years old, her mother married the fiancé she had jilted in order to marry Curtis.[2] They settled in Regina, Saskatchewan, where stepfather Sam worked in the meat packing industry. A year later her mother discovered her new husband was involved in a sexual relationship with his male assistant, and she and Betty returned to Seattle.[3] After graduating from public grammar school, Garrett enrolled at the Annie Wright School in Tacoma, which she attended on a full scholarship. There was no drama department there, and she frequently organized musical productions and plays for special occasions. Following her senior year performance in Twelfth Night, the bishop urged her to pursue a career on the stage. At the same time, her mother’s friend arranged an interview with Martha Graham, who was in Seattle for a concert tour, and the dancer recommended her for a scholarship at the Neighborhood Playhouse in New York City.[4]
Garrett and her mother arrived in Manhattan in the summer of 1936 and Garrett began classes in September. Her teachers included Graham and Anna Sokolow for dance, Sandy Meisner for drama, Lehman Engel for music, and Margaret Webster for the Shakespearean classics, and fellow students included Daniel Mann and Richard Conte. She felt she was destined to be a dramatic actress and shied away from playing comedic roles.[5]

Early career

During the summer months, Garrett performed in the Borscht Belt, where she had the opportunity to work with Danny Kaye, Jerome Robbins, Carol Channing, Imogene Coca, and Jules Munshin, and she was encouraged to hone her singing and dancing skills. [6] She joined Orson WellesMercury Theatre as an understudy in what was to be its last stage presentation, a poorly-reviewed and short-lived production of Danton’s Death that gave her the opportunity to work with Joseph Cotten, Ruth Ford, Martin Gabel, and Arlene Francis.[7][8] She performed with Martha Graham’s dance company at Carnegie Hall and the Alvin Theatre, sang at the Village Vanguard, and appeared in satirical and political revues staged by the Brooklyn-based Flatbush Arts Theatre, which eventually changed its name to the American Youth Theatre and relocated to Manhattan. It was during this period she joined the Communist Party and began performing at fundraisers for progressive causes.[9]

Broadway

Garrett made her Broadway debut in 1942 in the revue Of V We Sing, which closed after 76 performances but led to her being cast in the Harold Rome revue Let Freedom Sing later that year.[10] It closed after only eight performances, but producer Mike Todd saw it and signed her to understudy Ethel Merman [11] and play a small role in the 1943 Cole Porter musical Something for the Boys.[12] Merman became ill during the run, allowing Garrett to play the lead for a week. During this time she was seen by producer Vinton Freedley, who cast her in Jackpot, a Vernon Duke/Howard Dietz musical also starring Nanette Fabray and Allan Jones.[13] The show closed quickly, and Garrett began touring the country with her nightclub act.[14][15]

MGM

After Laffing Room Only another production Garrett appeared in on broadway closed there she traveled with the show as it played extended runs in Detroit and Chicago, after which she returned to New York and was cast in Call Me Mister, which reunited her with Harold Rome, Lehman Engel, and Jules Munshin. She won critical acclaim and the Donaldson Award for her performance, which prompted Al Hirschfeld to caricature her in the New York Times.[16] It also led to her being signed to a one-year contract with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer by Louis B. Mayer. Garrett arrived at the studio in January 1947 and made her film debut portraying nightclub performer Shoo Shoo O’Grady in Big City, directed by Norman Taurog and co-starring George Murphy.[17] Mayer renewed her contract and she appeared in the musicals Words and Music, On the Town, Take Me Out To The Ball Game, and Neptune’s Daughter in quick succession. [18]
The Jolson Story had been a huge hit in the United Kingdom, and Garrett and husband Larry Parks decided to capitalize on its popularity by appearing in at the London Palladium and then touring the UK with their nightclub act. Its success prompted them to return to the country three times, but the increasing popularity of television eventually led to the decline of music hall entertainment.[19] Then Garrett was cast opposite Janet Leigh and Jack Lemmon in My Sister Eileen, a 1955 musical remake of a 1942 film starring Rosalind Russell, when Judy Holliday dropped out of the project due to a contract dispute.[20] The following year, she and Parks replaced Holliday and Sydney Chaplin in the Broadway production of Bells Are Ringing during their vacation from the show. Over the next two decades, she worked sporadically, appearing on Broadway in two short-lived plays (Beg, Borrow or Steal with Parks and A Girl Could Get Lucky with Pat Hingle) and a musical adaptation of Spoon River Anthology, and making guest appearances on The Dinah Shore Chevy Show, The Lloyd Bridges Show, and The Fugitive.

Later career

In the fall of 1973, All in the Family added two new neighbors to the neighborhood, Frank Lorenzo and his feisty Irish American wife, Irene. Lear had been the publicity man for Call Me Mister, All in the Family writers Bernard West and Mickey West knew Garrett from her days with the American Youth Theatre, and Jean Stapleton had been in the cast of Bells Are Ringing, so Garrett appeared to be a frontrunner for the role of Irene. It went instead to Sada Thompson, but, unhappy after filming one episode, Thompson asked to be released from her commitment, freeing the role for Garrett. Irene was Catholic and assumed many of the household duties normally associated with husbands, and she therefore presented a kind of nemesis to Archie Bunker. She later worked with Archie at his place of employment, driving a forklift, and was paid less than the man she replaced. Garrett remained with the series from 1973 through 1975. [21]
The following year, Garrett was performing her one-woman show Betty Garrett and Other Songs in Westwood when she was offered the role of landlady Edna Babish in Laverne & Shirley. The character was a five-time divorcée who eventually married Laverne’s father Frank. Although Garrett felt she never was given enough to do on the show, she appreciated the fact that her musical talents occasionally were incorporated into the plot, and she won the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Series, Miniseries or Television Film for her performance. When the series was extended beyond what had been intended to be its final season, Garrett was forced to drop out because she already had committed to performing with Sandy Dennis, Jack Gilford, Hope Lange, and Joyce Van Patten in The Supporting Cast on Broadway. The play closed after only eight performances, but returning to Laverne & Shirley was not an option, as the writers had explained Edna’s disappearance by having her divorce Frank. [22]
In the ensuing years, Garrett appeared on television in Murder, She Wrote, The Golden Girls, Harts of the West, Union Square, Boston Public, Becker (for which she was nominated for the Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series), and Grey’s Anatomy, among others, and on stage in Plaza Suite (with Parks), And Miss Reardon Drinks A Little, and the 2001 Broadway revival of Follies. At Theatre West, which she co-founded, she directed Arthur Miller‘s The Price and appeared in the play Waiting in the Wings. She won the Los Angeles Drama Critics Circle Award twice, for Spoon River Anthology and Betty Garrett and Other Songs.[citation needed]
Garrett received a star on the Hollywood Walk Of Fame in 2003. On the occasion of her ninetieth birthday in 2009, she was honored at a celebration sponsored by Theatre West at the Music Box Theatre in Hollywood.[23][24][25]
In 2010, Garrett appeared alongside former two-time co-star Esther Williams during Turner Classic Movies‘ first annual Classic Film Festival.[26] Their film Neptune’s Daughter was screened at the pool of the Roosevelt Hotel in Hollywood, California while a Williams-inspired synchronized swimming troop, The Aqualilies, performed. [27]

Personal life

While appearing in Los Angeles, Garrett was invited to perform a comedy sketch at the Actor’s Lab in Hollywood. It was there she met Larry Parks, who was producing the show. He invited her to join him for a drink, then drove her to the top of Mulholland Drive and told her, “You’re the girl I’m going to marry.” During the next two weeks, the two were inseparable. Garrett departed for a nightclub engagement in Chicago. Eventually Parks joined her and introduced her to his mother, who lived in nearby Joliet. Parks returned to Los Angeles to begin filming Counter-Attack and Garrett continued to New York to prepare for Laffing Room Only with Olsen and Johnson, but before rehearsals began she called Parks and proposed marriage. The two were wed on September 8, 1944,[28] four months after their initial meeting. Actor Lloyd Bridges served as best man.[28] Garrett and Parks spent a month honeymooning in Malibu Beach, and then lived apart for the next two years while pursuing their respective careers.[29]
Garrett and Parks remained married until his death in 1975. She had two sons, composer Garrett and actor Andrew. [30]

Blacklisting

Because of their past affiliations with the Communist Party, Garrett and Parks became embroiled with the House Un-American Activities Committee, although only Parks was forced to testify. He willingly admitted he had been a member of the party and initially refused to name others though did later. Despite this he found himself on the Hollywood blacklist. Garrett also had trouble finding work, although as the mother of two young sons she did not mind being unemployed as much as her husband did. Parks formed a highly successful construction business, and eventually the couple owned many apartment buildings scattered throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Rather than sell them upon completion, Parks decided to retain ownership and collect rents as a landlord, a decision that proved to be extremely profitable. During this period, the couple occasionally performed in Las Vegas showrooms, summer stock productions, and touring companies of Broadway shows.[31][32]

Death

Betty Garrett died of an aortic aneurysm in Los Angeles on February 12, 2011, at the age of 91.[33]

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Who is Jaycee Lee Dugard?

Who is Jaycee Lee Dugard? The world news knew her as a victim of kidnapped that occurred on June 10, 1991, when she was 11 years old. Dugard was abducted from a school bus stop within sight of her home in South Lake Tahoe, California. She was missing for over 18 years. On August 26, 2009, Dugard, her daughters, and Phillip Craig Garrido appeared in the office of her alleged kidnapper’s parole officer in California. Their unusual behavior sparked an investigation that led to the positive identification of Jaycee Lee Dugard, living in a tent behind Garrido’s home.

Phillip Craig Garrido, 58, and his wife Nancy Garrido, 54, of Antioch, California were arrested for kidnapping and other charges; they are being held in jail awaiting trial. Law enforcement officers believe Dugard was kept in a concealed area behind Garrido’s house in Antioch for 18 years. During this time Dugard bore two daughters who were aged 11 and 15 at the time of her reappearance.

Background of suspects

Phillip Craig Garrido was born in Contra Costa County, California, on April 5, 1951. He grew up in Brentwood, where he graduated from Liberty High School in 1969. His father, Manuel Garrido, who continues to reside in Brentwood, said his son was a “good boy” as a child, but radically changed after a serious motorcycle accident as a teenager, and later turned to drug use. The Sacramento Bee and the Associated Press have reported that the elder Garrido has begun demanding money in exchange for speaking with reporters; both organizations have refused.[6][7][8][9]
In 1972, Garrido was arrested and charged with sexually assaulting a 14-year-old girl, but the case did not go to trial after the girl declined to testify.[10] In 1973, Garrido married high-school classmate Christine Murphy, who said Garrido was abusive. Murphy alleges that Garrido kidnapped her when she tried to leave him.[11]
In 1976, Garrido kidnapped Katherine Callaway in South Lake Tahoe, California. He took her to a Reno, Nevada warehouse, where he sexually assaulted her.[12] When a police officer noticed a suspicious car parked outside at unusually late hours, he came up to investigate. Callaway then emerged and asked for help. Garrido was promptly arrested.[12] He was charged and convicted of crimes in both federal and state courts.[12][13]In a 1976 court-ordered psychiatric evaluation, Garrido was diagnosed as a “sexual deviant and chronic drug abuser.”[14] The psychiatrist recommended that a neurological examination be conducted because Garrido’s chronic drug use could be “responsible in part” for his “mixed” or “multiple” sexual deviation. Garrido was then evaluated by a neurologist. The diagnostic impression was: “normal neurological examination.”[15] In court, Garrido testified that he masturbated in his car by the side of grammar schools and high schools while watching young girls.[16] Garrido was convicted on March 9, 1977 and began serving a 50-year federal sentence on June 30, 1977, at Leavenworth Penitentiary in Kansas.
At Leavenworth, Garrido met Nancy Bocanegra, who was visiting another prisoner, her uncle. On October 5, 1981, Garrido and Bocanegra were married at Leavenworth. On January 22, 1988, Garrido was released from Leavenworth to Nevada State Prison, where he served seven months of a five-years-to-life Nevada sentence. He was transferred to federal parole authorities in Antioch on August 26, 1988.[13] In Antioch, the Garridos lived in the home of his elderly mother, who suffered from dementia. As a parolee, he was monitored, later wore a GPS-enabled ankle bracelet, and was regularly visited by police.[17]


Abduction and search effort



In September 1990, Jaycee Dugard and her family moved from the Orange County city of Garden Grove to South Lake Tahoe. At the time of the abduction, Dugard was in fifth grade attending Meyers Elementary School near South Lake Tahoe.


On June 10, 1991 Dugard’s stepfather, Carl Probyn, witnessed the abduction from within sight of their home. He saw two people in a gray sedan (possibly a Mercury Monarch or Mercury Zephyr) make a U-turn at the school bus stop where Dugard was waiting, and a woman forced Dugard into the car. Probyn then gave chase on a bicycle, but he was unable to overtake the vehicle. Some of Dugard’s classmates were also witnesses to the abduction. Initial suspects included Probyn and Ken Slayton, Dugard’s biological father. Probyn took and passed several lie-detector tests, and Slayton was also quickly cleared of the crime.


Within hours of Dugard’s disappearance, local and national media converged upon South Lake Tahoe to cover the story. Within days, dozens of local volunteers assisted in the search effort, which involved nearly every resource within the community. Within weeks, tens of thousands of fliers and posters were mailed to businesses throughout the United States. Since Dugard’s favorite color was pink, the entire town was blanketed in pink ribbons as a constant reminder of her disappearance and a demonstrated support for the family throughout the community.


Dugard’s mother, Terry Probyn, founded a group called Jaycee’s Hope, which directed the volunteer and fundraising effort. Cassette tapes of the song Jaycee Lee along with T-shirts, sweatshirts and buttons were sold to raise money for poster materials, postage, printing and related expenses. Child Quest International and The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children were also involved in the effort. A reward was offered, which was displayed on the posters and fliers. The kidnapping case also attracted nationwide attention and was featured many times on the television show America’s Most Wanted.


The ensuing months and years were a continuous effort of child safety awareness, fundraising events and candlelight vigils marking Dugard’s disappearance and keeping her story before the public.[18][19][20][21][22][23][24]

Captivity



The Garridos’ home on Walnut Avenue is in an unincorporated area in northeast Antioch.[25] A neighbor of the Garridos said he recalls, as a child, meeting Dugard through a fence in the Garridos’ yard soon after the kidnapping. He said that she had identified herself by the name “Jaycee” and that’s when he asked her if she lived there or was just visiting, she answered that she lived there. At that point Philip Garrido came out and took her back indoors. The Garridos later built a privacy fence around the property, which already had several large trees in the yard. [26]


From April to August 1993, Phillip Garrido was returned to federal prison for parole violation.


Jaycee Lee Dugard bore two daughters to Phillip Garrido, who were born in August 1994 and November 1997.[27] During their time together as a family, Dugard presented herself to everyone as the daughter of the Garridos and described the younger girls as her little sisters. Her two daughters also told others she was their older sister.[28] Most US media sources have declined to name the children, although names have been given in foreign media coverage of the case.[29]


Garrido operated a print shop, where Dugard acted as the graphics artist. Ben Daughdrill, a customer of Garrido’s printing business, claimed he met and spoke by telephone with Dugard and that she did excellent work. During this time, Dugard had access to the business phone and an email account. One customer of the printing business indicated she never hinted to him about her childhood abduction or true identity.[30]


While in Antioch, Garrido also kept a blog associated with what he called “Gods Desire Church.” In the blog Garrido said he had the power to control sound with his mind. Garrido asked several people, including customers, to sign testimonials confirming that they witnessed his ability to “control sound with my mind” and a device he developed “for others to witness this phenomena.”[31][32]

Law enforcement officers believe that at the time they became involved in 2009, Dugard’s living quarters were in a secondary backyard behind Phillip Garrido’s house. The private area of the yard included sheds (one of which was soundproofed and used as a recording studio in which Garrido recorded himself singing religious-themed and romantic country songs), two tents, and what has been described as a camping-style shower and toilet. The area was surrounded by tall trees and a 6-foot (1.8 m) high fence. An entrance to the secondary backyard was covered by a tarpaulin. Privacy in the yard was enhanced by tents and outbuildings, as well as an old car similar to the one used in the abduction. Law enforcement officers visited the residence at least twice in recent years, but did not give the backyard more than a quick inspection. When police investigated, they found the backyard to be crowded with typical childhood possessions, including books and toys, among the tents and sheds. Electricity was supplied by extension cords. Jaycee Dugard was seen in the house and sometimes answered the front door. While the family kept to themselves, the girls were sometimes seen playing in the backyard or as passengers in Garrido’s car. Garrido claims to have home-schooled the two girls.[33]


Both Dugard’s aunt, Tina Dugard, and former business associate Cheyvonne Molino, have made public statements that in their opinion that there was no manner in the upbringing of her children to suggest in any way that they are deprived, or significantly deficient in ways that cannot be addressed through typical remedial education. Molino asserted that she had been able to see them occasionally over many years and that they dressed normally, that their behavior away from and with their father was quite social and relaxed, and that during that extended time they appeared to be thriving.[34][35]

Missed opportunities to rescue Dugard



Police failed to make the connection that Jaycee Lee Dugard was kidnapped in South Lake Tahoe, the same location as Garrido’s 1976 kidnapping of Katherine Callaway Hall.


On April 22, 1992, less than a year after her kidnapping, a male caller reported to the Contra Costa County Sheriff’s Department that he saw a girl who closely resembled Dugard staring intently at a missing child flyer of herself in a gas station in Oakley, California, less than two miles from the Garridos’ home. The caller, who left no name, reported seeing her leave in a large yellow van, which matches the description of an old yellow Dodge van that was recovered from the Garrido property in 2009. The license plate was not reported and the sighting was investigated only cursorily.[36]


In June 2002, the fire department responded to a report of a juvenile with a shoulder injury that occurred in a swimming pool at Garrido’s home. This information was not relayed to the parole office, which had no record of either a juvenile or a swimming pool at Garrido’s address.[37]


In 2006 one of Garrido’s neighbors called 9-1-1 to inform them there were tents in the backyard with children living there and that Garrido was “psychotic” with sexual addictions. A deputy sheriff spoke with Garrido at the front of the house for about 30 minutes and left after telling him there would be a code violation if people were living outside on the property. After Dugard was found in August 2009 the local police issued an apology.[38][39]


On November 4, 2009, the California Office of the Inspector General issued a report[37], which enumerated various lapses by the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation that contributed to Dugard’s continued captivity. The central finding was that Garrido was incorrectly classified as needing only low-level supervision and all other lapses were derived from it. In his report, the inspector general detailed an instance in which a parole agent encountered a 12-year-old girl at the home of Phillip Garrido, but accepted Garrido’s “explanation that she was his brother’s daughter and [the agent] did nothing to verify it.”[40]


On August 24, 2009, Garrido visited the San Francisco office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and left a four-page essay containing his ideas about religion and sexuality, suggesting he had discovered a solution to problem behaviors like his own past crimes. The essay described how he had cured his own criminal sexual behaviors and how that information could be used to assist in curing other sexual predators by “controlling human impulses that drive humans to commit dysfunctional acts.” On the same day, Phillip Garrido went to aUniversity of California, Berkeley police office seeking permission to hold a special Christian event on campus as a part of his “God’s Desire” program. He spoke with U.C. Berkeley special events manager Lisa Campbell. She perceived his behavior as odd and asked him to make an appointment for the next day, which he did, leaving his name in the process. The next morning, August 25, Campbell notified campus police officer Ally Jacobs about the meeting later that morning with Garrido, and her concerns. Jacobs ran a background check and learned that Garrido was on parole for rape, and decided to sit in on the meeting. Garrido arrived with two girls, whom he introduced as his daughters. At the meeting, Jacobs felt that the girls’ behavior was unusual, and phoned the parole office to relay her concerns. As no one was in, she left a report of the meeting on voicemail.[37][42][43]





After hearing Jacobs’ recorded message, two parole agents drove to Garrido’s house later that day. Upon arrival, they handcuffed him and searched the house, only finding his wife Nancy and his elderly mother at home. Then the parole agents drove Garrido back to the parole office. En route, Garrido said that the two girls who had accompanied him to UC Berkeley “were the daughters of a relative, and he had permission from their parents to take them to the university.” Although the parole office had barred Garrido from being around minors a month before, the agents overlooked this violation. After reviewing his file with a supervisor, they drove him home and ordered him to report back to the office again the next day to further discuss his visit to UC Berkeley and follow up on their concerns about the two girls.[37]


Garrido arrived at the parole office on August 26 with his wife, Nancy, the two girls and Jaycee Lee Dugard, who was introduced as “Alyssa”. When they arrived, his parole officer was on the phone with Jacobs to obtain a more detailed description of her interaction with Garrido and the two girls. Jacobs informed the officer that the girls were calling Garrido “Daddy,” but the parole officer believed that Garrido had no children. The parole officer then decided to separate Garrido from the women and girls to obtain an identification.

Dugard, maintaining her false identity as “Alyssa”, stated that she was the girls’ mother. When the parole officer said that she looked too young to be the mother and asked her age, “Alyssa said that she was 29 years old, laughingly explaining that she often gets that comment and that people believe she is the girls’ sister,” the report states. As the questioning continued, Dugard and Nancy Garrido became agitated and wanted to know why they were being questioned. When the parole officer explained that he was investigating Garrido’s visit to the UC campus with the two girls, Dugard said that she knew Garrido had taken the girls to the campus and that she also knew he was a paroled sex offender who had kidnapped and raped a woman. “She added that Garrido was a changed man and a great person who was good to her kids. Alyssa subsequently stated that she didn’t want to provide any additional information and that she might need a lawyer.”


The parole agent then asked Garrido in another room to explain the relationship between himself and “Alyssa” and the two girls. Garrido said that all three were his nieces, the daughters of his brother in Oakley. “Garrido stated that the parents were divorced, the girls were living with them and other people, and he did not know his brother’s address or phone number,” the report states. The parole officer returned to the women and insisted on seeing identification from “Alyssa,” but Dugard replied that she “had learned a long time ago not to carry or give any personal information to anyone.” She also said she needed a lawyer. At this point, the parole officer called in Concord police.


The report continues: “As they waited for the officer to arrive, Alyssa said she was sorry that she had lied. She explained that she was from Minnesota and had been hiding for five years from an abusive husband. She was terrified of being found, she said, and that was the reason she could not give the parole agent any information.” Two Concord police officers continued the questioning of Dugard, who maintained her false identity and the story she had told to the parole agent. In the other room, a Concord police sergeant questioned Garrido, who finally admitted that he was the father of the two girls. When the parole agent resumed his questioning of Garrido, the latter admitted to kidnapping and raping “Alyssa”. Under further questioning, Dugard revealed her true identity and confirmed that she had been kidnapped and raped by Garrido.


Garrido and his wife were then put under arrest. An FBI agent put Dugard on the telephone with her mother, Terry Probyn. Dugard retained custody of her children and was soon reunited with her mother.[44][45][46]

Aftermath

Reunion and afterward

In the days following Dugard’s return, Carl Probyn, her stepfather, confirmed that she and her daughters were in good health and intelligent, their reunion was going well, and they were proceeding slowly. He said his stepdaughter had developed a significant emotional bond with Phillip Garrido, and the girls cried when they learned of their father’s arrest. According to Jaycee Dugard’s aunt, Tina Dugard, about the two girls: “They are clever, articulate, curious girls who have a bright future ahead of them.”[47][48][49] Ernie Allen, president of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, said Dugard’s reappearance is an important event for families of other long-term missing children, because it shows that there is hope even in long-term cases. Elizabeth Smart has stressed the importance of focusing on the future with a positive attitude as an effective approach to accepting what has happened. Shawn Hornbeck also commented on the case.[50][51][52][53]


Three weeks after her release, Jaycee Dugard made a request to gain control of the pets that were raised in the home where she was held captive. On October 14, 2009, People published on its cover the first verified photo of Jaycee Dugard as an adult. Her mother, Terry Probyn, has lined up publisher Broadway Books and planned for the 2010 publication of a book detailing the girls’ decades-long absence and return.[54][55]


On July 1, 2010 the California state assembly passed A.B. 1714, appropriating $20 million to settle claims brought against the state by Jaycee Dugard, her mother, and her daughters.[56][57] The bill was approved by the Governor on July 9.[57]

Police investigations



Following the arrest, police extensively searched the Garrido house for evidence of other crimes. Because Phillip Garrido had access to his neighbor’s house, it was also searched for evidence.[58][59] Police also searched the homes and business of one of Phillip Garrido’s printing business clients.[60] Between September 15, 2009 and September 22, 2009, police agencies from Hayward, California and Dublin, Californiaconducted searches of the Garridos’ property investigating missing girls from those communities. The results of the search turned up no clues in the disappearances of the girls.[61]


Garrido’s statements

On August 27, 2009, KCRA-TV in Sacramento, California, interviewed Garrido in his jail cell by telephone. During the interview Garrido said, “In the end, this is going to be a powerful, heartwarming

         Garrido repeatedly told the reporter how he “filed documents” with the FBI on August 24, 2009, which, when they were published, would cause people to “fall over backwards” and that he could not reveal more because he “had to protect law enforcement” and “what happened” [...] was “something that humans have not understood well.” In the interview Garrido denied he had ever harmed Dugard’s two daughters. He said their births changed his life and “they slept in my arms every single night since birth. I never touched them.” On August 28, 2009, FBI spokesman Joseph Schadler confirmed that Garrido had indeed left the documents with the agency, as he had claimed, but declined to discuss further details.[62] FBI did release documents that Garrido filed with them. The document was titled ‘Origin of Schizophrenia Revealed’. The document is about stopping schizophrenics from turning violent and controlling sounds with the human mind.[63]

story”,[62] because, in his version of events.




Legal proceedings



On August 28, 2009, Garrido and his wife pleaded not guilty to charges including kidnapping, rape and false imprisonment. A bail review/pre-preliminary hearing was held September 14, 2009, at the El Dorado County Superior Court in Placerville, California.[64] At the hearing, Superior Court Judge Douglas Phimister set bail for Phillip Garrido at $30 million. However, there is a no-bail parole hold on Garrido. The judge kept Nancy Garrido in custody on a no-bail hold. Nancy Garrido could request bail at a later date.[65][66][67][68][69][70][71] At the September 14 hearing, Phimister also granted a request from Phillip Garrido’s attorney to have a psychologist or psychiatrist appointed to conduct a confidential evaluation of Garrido. This examination is to be used by the defense to assist in case preparation. Additional mental health examinations could be ordered at subsequent phases in the proceedings.[72] On October 29, 2009, a short hearing was held to set a date for the next pre-preliminary hearing when issues such as discovery were to be discussed. This hearing occurred on December 11, 2009. Katie Callaway Hall, whom Phillip Garrido raped in 1976, appeared in the courtroom in both the October and December hearings. She did not speak in either proceeding.[73][74]


On November 5, 2009, Phimister ordered Nancy Garrido’s defense attorney, Gilbert Maines, to be removed from the case. According to a posting on the court’s website,[75] the decision occurred in review of “confidential evidence” that has not been disclosed to the public, and details of the proceedings were kept sealed. The decision was immediately stayed until November 30, 2009.[76] On November 12, 2009, Phimister appointed Stephen A. Tapson as interim counsel for Nancy Garrido.[77] Gilbert Maines appealed the decision and was given a favorable ruling by the California Third District Court of Appeal on December 15, 2009. [78] On December 22, 2009, the same court gave the Eldorado Superior Court until January 2010 to respond to the ruling.[79] Both Gilbert Maines and Stephen Tapson appeared at the discovery hearing on December 11, 2009.[74] A hearing was held on January 21, 2010. At that hearing, Maines was removed from the case and Tapson was appointed defense counsel for Nancy Garrido. In addition, bail in the amount of $20 million was set for Nancy Garrido.[80]


Mr. and Mrs. Garrido both made a ‘full confession’ in the case, said Tapson at a press conference on 28 February 2011. The development came as lawyers for both sides have re-opened discussions on a possible plea deal that may obviate the need for a trial. Mrs. Garrido’s attorney acknowledged that she was facing “241 years, eight months to life” and that he was working for a reduced sentence in the 30 year range. He stated that the prosecutor had acknowledged that Mr. Garrido was a master-manipulator and that his Mrs. Garrido was under both his influence and that of substances during the period of Dugard’s kidnapping so should receive some consideration while alluding to parallels with Patty Hearst and Stockholm Syndrome[81]


On Thursday, April 7, 2011, Phillip and Nancy Garrido, instead of pleading guilty (as had been expected based on their previous statements) pleaded not guilty to charges of kidnapping and raping Dugard, as well as other charges, in an amended indictment. Phillip Garrido’s attorney, public defender Susan Gellman, alleged that the grand jury might have been improperly selected and might have acted improperly. Gellman did not elaborate on her claim in the courtroom but said outside that she had questions about the racial and geographic makeup of the grand jury that originally indicted the Garridos in September of 2010. Judge Phimister noted that there were issues about the process itself before the grand jury, and also stated that the court would consider whether the grand jury acted appropriately. The developments were largely unforeseen by attorney Stephen Tapson, who represents Nancy Garrido; Tapson had said earlier that week that Phillip Garrido had made adeal with prosecutors to plead guilty and spend the rest of his life in prison. Gellman was upset with Tapson for telling reporters that her client had planned to plead guilty, saying that Tapson should only speak about his own client, Nancy Garrido. Tapson said he only found out about Gellman’s plans late on Wednesday. Neither attorney would elaborate further on the specific concerns about the grand jury. El Dorado County, California District Attorney Vern Pierson did not think the complaints about the grand jury would ultimately derail his case against the Garridos. [82]

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Who is draco malfoy?

Who is Draco Malfoy? The entertainment and movie world knows him as a fictional character and a major antagonist in J. K. Rowling‘s Harry Potter series. Draco Malfoy is played by (Tom Felton), Lalfoy is a Slytherin student in Harry Potter‘s year. He is frequently accompanied by his two accomplices, Vincent Crabbe and Gregory Goyle, who act as bodyguards. Although Draco is often regarded as a cowardly bully who uses psychological manipulation and verbal taunts to denigrate his victims, he reveals an ability to cunningly wield magic to attain his objectives.

Character development

Draco serves as a literary foil to the hero, Harry Potter, and is loosely based on bullies Rowling encountered during her school days.[1] Harry first encounters Draco’s snobbish bigotry after their initial encounter at Madam Malkin’s.[2] Rowling uses the Malfoys to introduce themes of intolerance and bigotry into a setting where people are often judged solely by their blood lineage rather than their good character or accomplishments. Draco, adhering to his family’s beliefs, thinks that Muggle-born witches and wizards, which he and other characters derogatorily describe by the epithet Mudbloods, should be denied a magical education. Harry’s first impression that the Wizarding community is a “magical wonderland” is instantly shattered. Says Rowling, “[Harry] found out that many people in power in the wizarding world are just as corrupt and nasty as they are in our world.”[2]
Malfoy was originally named “Draco Spungen” in the earliest drafts of Philosopher’s Stone.[3] “Spungen” also appeared on her pre-canon class list, but it was crossed out and replaced with the surname “Spinks”, while “Malfoy” was later added after the completion of the list. Philip Nel states that Malfoy is derived from the French phrase mal foi, meaning “bad faith.”[4] In an article published in 2002, Nilsen and Nilsen argue that “Draco” has connotations with draconian, and that his name starts with “mal”, a French prefix for “bad” or “evil”.[5]

Appearances

First three books

Draco Malfoy makes his first appearance in the series when he and Harry meet while being fitted for school Draco Mal.JPGrobes at Madam Malkin’s, a clothing shop in Diagon Alley. Not realising that the boy in the store is Harry Potter—a child whose parents were murdered when he was one year old by the powerful dark wizard Lord Voldemort—Draco engages him in (for him) polite conversation. Harry, however, is alienated by the arrogance of Draco, who asks whether the orphan’s parents are “our kind” (pure-blood wizards). Draco then proclaims that “the other sort” (Muggle-borns) should not be allowed at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, because “they’ve never been brought up to know our ways”. The two boys part without introductions, but meet again on the Hogwarts Express. After Draco ridicules Ron Weasley‘s family, Harry rejects his offer of friendship and their mutual antagonism is born. According to Rowling, Malfoy originally makes an effort to be Harry’s friend because “it will be cool to turn up at the school being Harry Potter’s friend, because Harry is so famous.”[1] However, Harry did not want Malfoy as a friend because he “has been so rude about Rubeus Hagrid and about Ron, who Harry likes so much”. Barely touching Draco’s head, the Sorting Hat places him into Slytherin, where he becomes an instant favourite of Potions teacher and Slytherin Head of House, Severus Snape. Draco attempts to get Harry expelled by tricking him into participating in a midnight wizard’s duel after secretly informing Argus Filch in advance, but the plan fails when Harry evades Filch and safely makes it back to his dormitory.
In Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Draco becomes the new Seeker for the Slytherin Quidditch team after his father, Lucius Malfoy, donates new, high-quality Nimbus 2001 broomsticks. When Hermione Granger comments that the Gryffindor players made the team through talent and not bribery, Draco responds by calling her a Mudblood. This provokes an immediate, violent response from all the Gryffindors present, except Hermione and Harry, who, having been raised by Muggles, do not know what the epithet means. Because of Draco’s contempt for Muggle-borns, Harry, Ron, and Hermione suspect that Draco is the Heir of Slytherin, who has recently reopened the Chamber of Secrets. Harry and Ron disguise themselves as Crabbe and Goyle with Polyjuice Potion and infiltrate the Slytherin common room in an attempt to collect additional information, whereupon they realise that their initial suspicion about Draco is incorrect.

During Hagrid’s debut as Care of Magical Creatures instructor in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, the hippogriff, Buckbeak, attacks Draco after he fails to observe proper protocol while approaching it and insults it. He exaggerates the extent of his injury, giving Slytherin a chance to postpone their Quidditch match against Gryffindor until later in the year, and as an attempt to have Hagrid fired. Hermione slaps Draco when he mocks Hagrid for crying over Buckbeak’s sentence. Draco, who implies that he is aware of how Sirius Black was supposedly involved in the deaths of Harry’s parents, also taunts Harry about the impending threat of Black: “If it was me, I’d want revenge. I’d hunt him down myself.”

Fourth and fifth books

After Harry is unexpectedly chosen as a Triwizard Tournament champion in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Draco shows off a “Support Cedric Diggory” badge to Harry, then presses it to replace that phrase with “Potter Stinks.” When Malfoy says that he does not “want a Mudblood sliming it up” in reference to Hermione, Harry and Draco simultaneously fire off spells which ricochet and hit Goyle and Hermione instead. Draco also gives malicious and often false information about Harry and Hagrid to muckraking Daily Prophet journalist Rita Skeeter. When Draco attempts to curse Harry behind his back, the Defence Against the Dark Arts professor Alastor Moody (actually Barty Crouch, Jr in disguise via Polyjuice Potion) humiliates Draco by transforming him into a ferret and repeatedly slamming him against the ground. Draco is romantically linked to Pansy Parkinson, who attends the Yule Ball as his date.
In Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix, Draco is named a Slytherin prefect along with Pansy. He gets Harry and the Weasley twins banned from the Gryffindor Quidditch team when they attack him during a postmatch brawl after Draco insults their families following Gryffindor’s win over Slytherin. He later joins Dolores Umbridge‘s Inquisitorial Squad, with whom he plays an important part in the exposure of Dumbledore’s Army. As the D.A. flees the Room of Requirement, Draco earns Slytherin fifty points after catching Harry, and helps hold several members captive in Umbridge’s office, letting them free only after Ginny Weasley performs the Bat Bogey Hex. After his father and other Death Eaters are captured and sentenced to Azkaban following the events at the Department of Mysteries, Draco twice attempts to get revenge on Harry, but Snape and Minerva McGonagall thwart his first effort, and while returning home on the Hogwarts Express, Draco, Crabbe, and Goyle are transformed into giant slugs by a barrage of hexes cast by several D.A. members coming to Harry’s defence.

Sixth book

Because of Lucius Malfoy‘s arrest as a Death-Eater and fall from Voldemort’s favor, Narcissa Malfoy and Bellatrix Lestrange visit Snape at his home to discuss a dangerous task that Voldemort has assigned Draco. Narcissa, deeply worried that her son will be killed in his attempt to complete it, begs Snape to make an Unbreakable Vow to aid Draco with this task and protect him at all costs, and if he fails complete his mission; he agrees.
Under the Invisibility Cloak, Harry, Ron, and Hermione follow Draco to Borgin and Burkes, a dark magic shop in Knockturn Alley. Draco threatens Mr Borgin about repairing one item and keeping another safe for him. Draco shows Mr Borgin something on his arm that Harry believes to be the Dark Mark, Voldemort’s sign, though whether or not Harry is correct is never confirmed. (In the movie version Draco Malfoy shows Dumbledore the Dark Mark on his arm.) On the Hogwarts Express, Harry invisibly spies on Draco and overhears him discussing Voldemort’s task with several other Slytherins. Draco knows Harry is present and, once alone in the compartment, immobilises him and breaks his nose. Harry is left stranded on the train until Nymphadora Tonks (Luna Lovegood in the film adaptation) rescues him. Harry spends much of the year trailing Draco’s whereabouts on his Marauder’s Map, but loses track of him once Draco enters the Room of Requirement. When Katie Bell is almost killed in Hogsmeade after handling a cursed necklace and Ron nearly dies by drinking poisoned mead, Harry suspects Draco is behind both attacks.
In this book, Draco is, for the first time since being introduced in the series, portrayed as having considerable initiative, ingenuity, and perseverance, and he is extensively using the Room of Requirement. However, unlike Harry, who could always rely on his friends’ support and help, Draco mostly works alone, refusing to confide in or involve his own circle, which he treated more as underlings rather than as friends. This, and the realisation of what he is ultimately expected to do, nearly drives him to a nervous breakdown. When Harry walks in on Malfoy crying in Moaning Myrtle‘s bathroom, Draco attempts to cast the Cruciatus Curse. Harry is faster to the draw with an obscure Sectumsempra spell that he learned from the mysterious Half-Blood Prince’s book. The spell cuts deep gashes into Malfoy’s face and chest, resulting in severe blood loss. Snape, alerted by Myrtle’s screams, swiftly arrives and heals Draco’s cuts, then takes him to the hospital wing.
Near the conclusion, Draco ambushes and disarms a gravely weakened Dumbledore at the Astronomy Tower. Dumbledore calmly reasons with the frightened Draco and persuades him to reveal how he was, according to Voldemort’s orders, to kill the headmaster through the cursed necklace and the poisoned mead. Malfoy reveals that he mended the broken Vanishing Cabinet in the Room of Requirement to act as a portal enabling Death Eaters to enter Hogwarts. Draco is hesitant to kill Dumbledore and he eventually lowers his wand. Snape arrives, dispatches Dumbledore himself and then flees Hogwarts with Draco in tow. As revealed during his confrontation with Dumbledore, Draco was an insecure boy incapable of committing cold-blooded murder and was forced to do Voldemort’s bidding under the threat of his and his parents’ deaths. Harry, who was horrified by the result of his duel with Draco in the bathroom incident, feels “the tiniest drop of pity mingled with his dislike” for his old rival.
During an interview in 2005, Rowling revealed that she enjoyed writing Draco in this book, and that the character “did a lot of growing up” as well.[6]

Final book

The Malfoys remain reluctant followers of Voldemort, who now uses their home as his headquarters; Draco passes out after witnessing Voldemort murder Muggle Studies professor Charity Burbage. Harry experiences occasional and disturbing visions of Draco being forced into performing Voldemort’s bidding and feels “sickened… by the use to which Draco was now being put by Voldemort.” When Harry, Ron, and Hermione are captured and taken to Malfoy Manor, Draco is asked to identify them, and though he clearly recognises them, he only ambiguously replies “It might be.” During the successful escape from Malfoy Manor headed by Dobby, Harry overpowers Draco and captures his wand.
When Harry, Ron, and Hermione seek Ravenclaw’s diadem in the Room of Requirement, Draco, reunited with Crabbe and Goyle, attempts to capture Harry alive. However, Crabbe defies Draco’s orders and attempts to kill the trio by casting the deadly Fiendfyre; unable to control the spell, he dies in the blaze while the trio rescue Draco and Goyle. Draco, despite his often condescending and belittling attitude toward Crabbe and Goyle, grieves for his lost friend. During the Battle of Hogwarts, Draco is seen pleading with a Death Eater who seems intent on killing him. He is once again saved by Harry and Ron, the latter of whom actually punches Draco in the face under the invisibility cloak for attempting to appease the Death Eater.
At about this time, it is revealed through the Pensieve that Dumbledore had known he was dying after being cursed by Voldemort’s ring. However, to spare Draco’s soul from being forever tainted by committing murder, Dumbledore pre-arranged his own death with Severus Snape. Voldemort intended Draco to die in the attempt to kill Dumbledore so that Lucius would be punished for his failure to retrieve the prophecy from the Ministry of Magic.
Although Draco does not directly take part in Harry’s final confrontation with Voldemort, he influences its outcome. After Harry is struck by the Avada Kedavra curse, Voldemort orders Narcissa to verify that Harry is actually dead. She detects his heartbeat, but she lies to Voldemort, knowing that she will be allowed to search for her son if the Death Eaters return to Hogwarts “as part of the conquering army.” A plot twist reveals that Draco had unwittingly become the Elder Wand‘s master when he disarmed Dumbledore, even though Draco never actually possessed the wand. The wand’s allegiance passes to whoever defeats its owner, so Harry, having taken Draco’s wand at Malfoy Manor, became its new master; this prevents Voldemort from using its full power. In the end, it is Narcissa’s lie to Voldemort concerning Harry’s death that enables the Malfoys to narrowly avoid imprisonment in Azkaban.[7]

Epilogue

In the epilogue, Draco has married and has a young son, Scorpius. Rowling revealed that Draco married Astoria Greengrass, the younger sister of his Slytherin housemate Daphne Greengrass. [8] Draco’s hairline has receded, making his face look even more pointed. Though they are not friends, Malfoy has somewhat decreased his animosity toward Harry, and, upon seeing them at King’s Cross station, gives a brief and curt but respectful nod to Harry, Ron and Hermione. [7]

Film portrayal

Tom Felton played Draco Malfoy in all of the Harry Potter movies. Prior to landing the part of Malfoy, Felton auditioned to play Harry and Ron.[9] Having read more of the Harry Potter books, Felton reflects: “I have had input into Draco. If they give me a line and I don’t think it is something he would say, I suggest changing it. They do listen to you and you do feel a part of it.”[10]
Felton contributed to premieres, articles and interviews, and received the Disney Channel‘s Kids Awards for Best DVD Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets on 22 September 2003.[citation needed] He also won the MTV Movie Award for Best Villain for his portrayal as Malfoy in the 2010 MTV Movie Awards.[11][12]
Malfoy grew into one of the series’ most popular characters due to Felton’s performances and Felton quickly became synonymous with the character to many female fans, much to Rowling’s dismay. “I’m trying to clearly distinguish between Tom Felton, who is a good looking young boy, and Draco, who, whatever he looks like, is not a nice man. It’s a romantic, but unhealthy, and unfortunately all too common delusion of girls…it actually worried me a little bit, to see young girls swearing undying devotion to this really imperfect character… I mean, I understand the psychology of it, but it is pretty unhealthy.”[6] Rowling has also noted that Malfoy “is certainly stylish in the film.”[2]

Characterisation

Outward appearance

Draco is a tall boy with a pale, pointed face, sleek white-blond hair, and stone grey eyes.

Personality

Draco opts to attack his enemies through psychological warfare rather than by physical force. His elitist upbringing is often used as a weapon to belittle those less prosperous than himself, such as Ron Weasley. He also insults Hermione Granger’s Muggle-born status by referring to her as a “Mudblood”, a term that, as stated by Hagrid, is one not used in civilized conversations. As Rowling explained in 1999, “He’s a bigot and he’s a bully, and as I say, in the most refined sense, he knows exactly what will hurt people”.[1]
In a July 2005 interview, Rowling added that Draco, unlike Harry, never feels remorse for his actions: “I thought of Draco as someone who is very capable of compartmentalizing his life and his emotions, and always has done. So he’s shut down his pity, enabling him to bully effectively. He’s shut down compassion— how else would you become a Death Eater?”[6]
Draco, as well as Dudley Dursley, was indoctrinated with his parents’ beliefs. Rowling commented that “The moment Draco got what he thought he wanted, to become a Death Eater, and given a mission by Lord Voldemort, as he did in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, reality finally hit him” because his dream was “so very different”. Rowling also stated that there was a real moral cowardice in Draco, but that he was not wholly bad.[13]

Magical abilities

During the series, Draco is portrayed as a cunning, competent young wizard. In his second year, he successfully performed the Tarantallegra curse against Harry,[14] a curse used by Death Eater Antonin Dolohov in book 5,[15] and also cast the Serpensortia spell in the same scene, conjuring a serpent from his wand as Voldemort would do against Dumbledore in book 5,[15] and Snape against McGonagall in the final book.[16] His character further develops in the sixth book, in which he is among very few students able to reach the required level to take advanced potions.[17] Draco also proved capable at Occlumency, which he learned from his Aunt Bellatrix.[17] Rowling recalled a discussion with her editor about Draco having mastered Occlumency while Harry could not. The author said that this is due to Draco being someone “very capable of compartmentalizing his life and his emotions”.[6] Draco’s wand is 10 inches precisely, made of hawthorne and unicorn hair, which Ollivander states that it is “reasonably springy”.[18]
When asked what shape Draco’s Patronus Charm is, Rowling replied that, at least by the end of the sixth book, Draco was not capable of producing a Patronus as it is not magic routinely taught at Hogwarts.[19]

Family

The Malfoy family is one of the few remaining pure-blood wizarding clans in the Harry Potter series, and among the wealthiest. The anti-Muggle editor Brutus Malfoy is their ancestor. Lucius Malfoy was a Death Eater during both wizard wars. He marries Narcissa Black and together they have one son, Draco, who is the first Malfoy family member introduced in the series. The Malfoys are related to the Black family through Narcissa (a first cousin of Sirius Black, Harry’s godfather), which makes Draco a nephew of both Bellatrix Lestrange and Andromeda Tonks. Draco is also Nymphadora Tonks‘ first cousin through their mothers. Three of Draco’s grandparents are identified: Abraxas Malfoy, Cygnus Black, and Druella Rosier. Abraxas died before the series begins and was a friend of Professor Slughorn. Draco is, therefore, the scion of two old magical families. The Malfoy home, Malfoy Manor, is an elegant mansion located in the western English county of Wiltshire. They were served by Dobby the house elf until the end of Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets.
The Malfoys are respected in the Wizarding world mainly from Lucius’ influence with Hogwarts and the Ministry of Magic, gained mostly from his monetary donations to the Ministry and St Mungo’s Hospital for Magical Maladies and Injuries, as well as from his post on the Hogwarts board of governors. However, he was removed from his position at the conclusion of the second book and imprisoned in Azkaban following the battle at the Department of Mysteries in Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. Despite maintaining a respectable, but false, image before these events, some in the Wizarding world were previously aware that the Malfoys were devoted to Voldemort and the Dark Arts. Draco constantly uses his elite status and his father’s name and influence to gain advantages and to threaten others. Lucius is also known to have used bribery and threats.

Reception

In an interview at the Royal Albert Hall, Rowling noted that boys liked to dress up as Malfoy a lot more than Harry, and that people are “getting far too fond of Draco”, which she finds “a little bit worrying”.[2] In the same interview, Stephen Fry noted that just as Harry met Malfoy, he found out that there is also racism in the wizarding world and that many characters in power can be “as nasty and corrupt as in our world”. Fry also noted that while “Malfoy, Goyle and Crabbe are almost irredeemably bad”, Malfoy, unlike his companions, “is reasonably stylish”.[2]

In popular culture

Wizard rock band Draco and the Malfoys‘ lyrics are inspired by the Harry Potter books but from Draco Malfoy’s point of view.[20] One chorus goes: “My dad’s always there to open all my doors, you have to call a Patronus just to catch a glimpse of yours/My dad is rich, and your dad is dead.”[21] As well as Harry and the Potters, the members of Draco and the Malfoys dress themselves as Hogwarts students, in this case in Slytherin-themed costumes. The band is one of about 750 bands of young musicians playing music inspired by the Harry Potter series.[20][22]
Draco is parodied as Jerko Phoenix in the series Wizards of Waverly Place, during the episodes “Wizard School Part 1″ and “Wizard School Part 2″, in which Alex and Justin Russo go to a wizarding school named Wiz-tech, where everyone wears yellow and black robes, and glasses reminiscent of Harry Potter.[23] Draco also appears as Sacco (played by Shane Lyons) in the Harry Bladder sketches in All That, in which Harry Bladder and other students often encounter Sacco’s mischief-making. He is also played by actress Lauren Lopez in the 2009 internet sensation, A Very Potter Musical and the 2010 sequel, “A Very Potter Sequel.” He rolls around on the floor whenever Harry, Ron and Hermione are around in these plays and loves Wizards of Waverly Place and Zac Efron. He also has a secret crush on Hermione, which he reveals to Ron, and tells Hermione in the Sequel. He longs to transfer to Pigfarts. In the stage production Harry Potter and the Obnoxious Voice, Malfoy is seen interacting with Hagrid and a dementor.[24]
Draco is also featured in the parody series Potter Puppet Pals, but unlike the other characters, he is merely a small puppet with a picture of his face as his head, and also being controlled and voiced by Harry. After Harry sings a song taunting Draco about the things he likes and also wrecking the character, he is destroyed by Harry when he puts “Draco” on top of a stove and turns it on, setting the puppet on fire.

 

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