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Archive for May, 2011

Arthur Lessac, American voice trainer, died he was , 101

Arthur Lessac was the creator of Lessac Kinesensic Training for the voice and body  died he was , 101. Lessac’s voice text teaches the “feeling process” for discovering vocal sensation in the body for developing tonal clarity, articulation, and for better connecting to text and the rhythms of speech.

(September 9, 1909 – April 7, 2011)

Development of ideas

He first studied voice as a student on scholarship at the Eastman School of Music where he graduated in 1936. Lessac’s big break into the professional performance scene occurred with Pins and Needles in 1937, a production written and performed by members in the cultural program of the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU). Lessac taught his ideas of feeling sensation to the amateur performers and helped them develop their voices and bodies. Lessac’s next Broadway job came in 1939 with a group of European refugees needing accent elimination for their show From Vienna. Lessac taught the cast how to feel and enjoy the sensations of the consonants. When the show opened, famed critic Brooks Atkinson wrote the cast spoke better English than those for whom English is their native language.
Lessac pursued his interest in health and wellness with voice and movement and gained a Bachelor of Arts degree in Voice-Speech Clinical Therapy from New York University in 1941. Four years later he founded the National Academy of Vocal Arts (NAVA) and taught there until 1950. He further developed the feeling process of voice and movement studies with his 21 teachers.In 1951 he continued discovering the benefits of his work when he taught voice in the Stella Adler Theatre Studio for one year, furthering his explorations of voice and movement for actors. In the same year Lessac began his 20 year tenure with the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. Lessac was in charge of teaching the students seeking ordination how to deliver sermons with good speech, voice and enthusiasm. Instead of simply reading the sermons from the weekly scrolls, Lessac taught them how to commune with the text and inspire their audiences through their vocal delivery.
Several important events happened during his time with the Jewish Theological Seminary. First, Lessac earned a Master of Arts degree in Voice-Speech Clinical Therapy from New York University in 1953 and worked with speech therapy patients at Bellevue Hospital throughout the 1950s. Lessac continued his studies in neurology and anatomy as he helped patients regain sensation in their faces and mouths through vocal explorations. Lessac helped patients with a myriad of afflictions ranging from stuttering to gaining mobility in parts of the face lacking nerve action due to Bell’s Palsy. Lessac’s work on employing the spirit toward the benefit of a healthy voice developed. By focusing on what a patient could do (and not focusing on disability or lack), patients became empowered in their abilities, engaged their spirits in therapy. Moreover, Lessac’s work reiterated the importance of allowing the pleasure of feeling vocal vibration or body’s energy guide one towards optimal expression and wellness.

Professional development

Lessac’s work with actors changed with the publication of his book in 1960. Famed directors Elia Kazan and Robert Whitehead appointed Lessac as teacher of voice, speech, singing and dialects for their historic repertory company at the Lincoln Center in 1962. Here Lessac worked with two of the top teachers in acting and dance, Robert Lewis and Anna Sokolow. Although the company only lasted one season, working with the most respected theatre professionals at the time reveals how much of an impact his work made on the theatre community.
In the summer of 1969, the theatre program at the State University of New York (SUNY) in Binghamton hired Lessac as full professor with immediate tenure with the mandate to develop the undergraduate and MFA acting program. The summer after his first year, he began teaching intensive workshops over 8 weeks that included all the tenets of his voice and body work. The intensives continue today each summer over 4 weeks and are taught by his master teachers of the work. Lessac left SUNY in 1981 as Professor Emeritus, but continued teaching in training programs all over the United States, Puerto Rico, Germany, Yugoslavia, South Africa, and Mexico. Lessac’s teachers and disciples felt the urgency of maintaining the pedagogical practices of the work plus the desire to expand kinesensic research into new terrain. They founded the Lessac Insitute in 1998 and developed an examination for teaching certification in 2000. The Lessac Institute now has dozens of certified trainers in sixteen states as well as trainers in South Africa, Germany, Belgium, and England. In addition, there are dozens of practitioners on track for certification.

Software

Lessac’s work is the basis for a new software for text-to-speech technology being developed by Lessac Technologies, Inc. (LTI) of West Newton, Massachusetts.

Books

  • Lessac, Arthur (1967). The use and training of the human voice; a practical approach to speech and voice dynamics. (2d ed. ed.). New York: DBS Publications. pp. xviii, 297 p. illus. 26 cm. OCLC 245027. LCCN 67-028352.
  • Lessac, Arthur (1997). The use and training of the human voice : a bio-dynamic approach to vocal life (3rd ed. ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Pub.. pp. xv, 291 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.. ISBN 1559346965. LCCN 96-018629.
  • Lessac, Arthur (1981, c1978). Body wisdom : the use and training of the human body (1st ed. ed.). New York, N.Y.: Drama Book Specialists. pp. vii, 278 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.. ISBN 0896760707. OCLC 7671791. LCCN 81-005472.

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Sujatha, Indian actress died she was , 58.



Sujatha was a popular South Indian actress who has performed in Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Kannada and Hindi language films, and was best known for restraint and subtlety in portrayal of varied emotions died she was , 58. Sujatha was introduced to the Tamil film industry by veteran director K. Balachander as a protagonist in Aval Oru Thodar Kathai (1974). She has acted with leading actors Sivaji Ganesan, Rajinikanth, Kamal Haasan, Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Shobhan Babu and Krishna. She paired with Kamal Haasan in most of her films.[3]

(10 December 1952 – 6 April 2011)

Early life

Sujatha was born on 10 December 1952 in Galle, Srilanka where she spent her childhood. She would actively participate in school plays, and later moved to Kerala when she was about 14. She acted in Ernakulam Junction, a Malayalam film and soon drew the attention of K. Balachander.

Career

Sujatha has acted in over 300 films in Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Kannada and Hindi, with almost 200 in Tamil. She shot to fame instantly with her portrayal of the haughty, free-thinking urban working woman shouldering the family’s responsibilities. She was later paired with actors Sivaji Ganesan, Rajnikanth, Kamal Hassan and Vijaykumar. Despite displaying her acting prowess through fiery characters in films like Aval Oru Thodarkadhai and Vidhi, Sujatha was equally known for her performances in family dramas like Mayangugiraal Oru Maadhu, Sentamizh Paattu and Aval Varuvaala. She seldom resorted to glamorous roles and graduated to playing older women in the late 1980s.

 Delightful entry

Sujatha’s entry into the industry was through a powerful role, at a time when hero-centric films were the norm, made many take notice. She made her debut in the Malayalam film Thapasvini. She had a dream debut in Tamil with Aval Oru Thodar Kathai directed by K. Balachander. She again colloborated with K. Balachander in the highly acclaimed Avargal (1977) along with Rajinikanth and Kamal Haasan. In the film, she played the wife of the former and the lover of the latter. Her portrayal of a married woman Anu, who is caught between the torture she is subjected to by her sadistic husband and the unforgettable memories of her past romance, is till date, considered one of the best performances by a female lead.

 Character roles

During the eighties she started playing character roles, often portraying mother roles. Her performances as a senior actor in films like Kodi Parakuthu, Uzhaippali, Baba, Villain and Varalaru in which she played Rajinikanth’s mother, also saw her trademark restraint and dignity in performance. Vathiyar(2006) was her last film.[4]

Awards and honours

My father thought of her as a director’s delight. She would understand what exactly the director wanted, internalise the character and perform accordingly

, says Pushpa Kandasamy, film producer and daughter of K. Balachander.

Death

She died of a cardiac arrest on 6 April 2011 after undergoing treatment for a heart ailment at her resiidence in Chennai. She is survived by husband Jayakar, son Sajith and daughter Divya.[5]

Selected filmography

Year
Film
Role
Language
2006
Arjun’s mother
Tamil
2006
Ajith Kumar’s mother in law
Tamil
2006
Pokala Damakka
Telugu
2004
Ajith Kumar’s mother
Tamil
2004
Arul’s mother
Tamil
2004
Bhanumathi
Malayalam
2003
Raghavayya’s wife
Telugu
2002
Baba’s mother
Tamil
2002
Telugu
2001
Head of disabled home
Tamil
1999
Lakshmi
Telugu
1998
Tamil
1998
Lakshmi
Tamil
1998
Simran’s mother-in-law
Tamil
1996
Karthik’s mother
Tamil
1996
Telugu
1994
Sivakami
Tamil
1993
Prabhu’s mother
Tamil
1993
Prabhu’s mother
Tamil
1993
Tamil
1992
Telugu
1992
Telugu
1992
Telugu
1991
Mother of Chanti
Telugu
1990
Telugu
1989
Rajini’s mother
Tamil
1989
Rajini’s mother
Tamil
1985
Kamal’s mother
Tamil
1984
Telugu
1984
Telugu
1984
Telugu
1983
Tamil
1983
Telugu
1983
Telugu
1982
Tamil
1982
Telugu
1982
Telugu
1981
Hindi
1981
Kamal’s wife
Tamil
1981
Lakshmi
Telugu
1980
Telugu
1980
Telugu
1980
Tamil
1980
Telugu
1979
Tamil
1979
Tamil
1979
Swapna
Telugu debut
1979
Telugu
1977
Tamil
1977
Anu
Tamil
1977
Tamil
1976
Annam
Tamil
1976
Tamil
1976
Malayalam
1976
Tamil
1976
Tamil
1975
Tamil
1975
Tamil
1974
Kavitha
Tamil
1971
Malayalam
1968
Malayalam

 

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Baruch Samuel Blumberg, American doctor, Nobel laureate in medicine, died from a heart attack he was , 85.

Baruch Samuel “Barry” Blumberg , was an American doctor and co-recipient of the 1976 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (with Daniel Carleton Gajdusek), and the President of the American Philosophical Society from 2005 until his death  died from a heart attack he was , 85..
Blumberg received the Nobel Prize for “discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases.” Blumberg identified the Hepatitis B virus, and later developed its diagnostic test and vaccine.

(July 28, 1925 – April 5, 2011)

Early life and education

Blumberg was born in Brooklyn, New York.[4] He first attended the Orthodox Yeshivah of Flatbush for elementary school, where he learned to read and write in Hebrew and to study the Bible and Jewish texts in their original language. (That school also had among its students a contemporary of Blumberg, Eric Kandel, who is another recipient of the Nobel Prize in medicine.) Blumberg then attended Far Rockaway High School in the early 1940s, a school that also produced fellow laureates Burton Richter and Richard Feynman.[5] Blumberg served as a U.S. Navy deck officer during World War II.[2] He then attended Union College in Schenectady, New York and graduated from there with honors in 1946.[6]
Originally entering the graduate program in mathematics at Columbia University, Blumberg switched to medicine and enrolled at Columbia’s College of Physicians and Surgeons, from which he received his M.D. in 1951. He remained at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center for the next four years, first as an intern and then as a resident. He then began graduate work in biochemistry at Balliol College, Oxford and earned his Ph.D there in 1957.

Scientific career


1999 press conference at which Blumberg was introduced as the first director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute

Throughout the 1950s, Blumberg traveled the world taking human blood samples and studying the inherited variations in human beings, focussing on why some people contracted diseases in similar environments that others did not. In 1964, while studying yellow jaundice, he discovered a surface antigen for hepatitus B in the blood of an Australian aborigine. Blumberg and his team were able to develop a screening test for the virus to prevent its spread in blood donations and developed a vaccine. Blumberg later freely distributed his vaccine patent in order to promote its fielding by drug companies. Deployment of the vaccine reduced the infection rate of Hepatitus B in children in China from 15% to 1% in 10 years.[7]
Blumberg became a member of the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia in 1964, and held the rank of University Professor of Medicine and Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania starting in 1977. Concurrently, he was Master of Balliol College from 1989 to 1994. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1994.[8] From 1999 to 2002, he was also director of the NASA Astrobiology Institute at the Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California.[9][10][11]
In November 2004, Blumberg was named Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board of United Therapeutics Corporation,[12] a position he held until his death. As Chairman he convened three Conferences on Nanomedical and Telemedical Technology, [13] as well as guiding the biotechnology company into the development of a broad-spectrum anti-viral medicine.
Beginning in 2005, Blumberg also served as the President of the American Philosophical Society. He had been first elected to membership in the society in 1986.[14]
In October of 2010 Blumberg participated in the USA Science and Engineering Festival‘s Lunch with a Laureate program whereby middle and high school students of the Greater Washington D.C., Northern Virginia and Maryland area get to engage in an informal conversation with a Nobel Prize winning scientist over a brown bag lunch.[15] Blumberg came to General George A. McCall Elementary on Sept. 29, 2010 as part of the program.
In an interview with the New York Times in 2002 he stated that “[Saving lives] is what drew me to medicine. There is, in Jewish thought, this idea that if you save a single life, you save the whole world”.[16]
In discussing the factors that influenced his life, Blumberg always gave credit to the mental discipline of the Jewish Talmud, and as often as possible he attended weekly Talmud discussion classes until his death. [17]

Death

Blumberg died on April 5, 2011,[1] shortly after giving the keynote speech at the International Lunar Research Park Exploratory Workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center. [18] At the time of his death Blumberg was a Distinguished Scientist at the NASA Lunar Science Institute, located at the NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California.[19][20]
Jonathan Chernoff, the scientific director at the Fox Chase Cancer Center where Blumberg spent most of his working life said, “I think it’s fair to say that Barry prevented more cancer deaths than any person who’s ever lived.”[21] In reference to Blumberg’s discovery of the Hepatitis B vaccine, former NASA administrator Daniel Goldin said, “Our planet is an improved place as a result of Barry’s few short days in residence.”[22]
His funeral was held on April 10, 2011 at Society Hill Synagogue, where he was a long time member. The eulogy was delivered by his son-in-law Mark Thompson, the Director-General of the BBC. [23][24]

 

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Ange-Félix Patassé, Central African politician, Prime Minister (1976–1978) and President (1993–2003) died he was , 74

Ange-Félix Patassé  was a Central African politician who was President of the Central African Republic from 1993 until 2003, when he was deposed by the rebel leader François Bozizé died he was , 74. Patassé was the first president in the CAR’s history (since 1960) to be chosen in what was generally regarded as a fairly democratic election (1993) in that it was brought about by donor pressure on the Kolingba regime and assisted by the UN Electoral Assistance Unit. He was chosen a second time in a fair election (1999) as well. However, during his first term in office (1993–1999), three military mutinies in 1996–1997 led to increasing conflict between so-called “northerners” (like Patassé) and “southerners” (like his predecessor President André Kolingba). Expatriate mediators and peacekeeping troops were brought in to negotiate peace accords between Patassé and the mutineers and to maintain law and order. During his second term as president, Patassé increasingly lost the support of many of his long-time allies as well as the French, who had intervened to support him during his first term in office. Patassé was ousted in March 2003 and went into exile in Togo.

(January 25, 1937 – April 5, 2011)

Background

Patassé was born in Paoua, the capital of the northwestern province of Ouham Pendé in the colony of Ubangi-Shari in French Equatorial Africa, and he belonged to the Sara-Kaba ethnic group which predominates in the region around Paoua. Patassé’s father, Paul Ngakoutou, who had served in the Free French military forces during the Second World War and afterwards worked for the colonial administration in the Province of Ouham-Pendé, was a member of the Sara-kaba people and was raised in a small village to the northeast of Boguila. Patassé’s mother, Véronique Goumba, belonged to the Kare ethnic group of northwestern Ubangi-Shari. As Patassé spent much of his youth in Paoua he was associated with the Ouham-Pendé province and many of his most loyal political supporters were Kaba. After attending school in Ubangi-Shari, Patassé studied in an agricultural institute in Puy-de-Dôme, France, where he received a Technical Baccalaureate which allowed him to enroll in the Superior Academy of Tropical Agriculture in Nogent-sur-Marne, and then in the National Agronomical Institute in Paris. Specializing in zootechnology, he received a diploma from the Center for the Artificial Insemination of Domestic Animals in Rambouillet, France. He finished his studies in Paris in 1959, a year before the independence of the Central African Republic.

Political career

 1960s–1970s: Rise to power

Patassé joined the Central African civil service in 1959, shortly before independence. He became an agricultural engineer and agricultural inspector in the Ministry of Agriculture in July 1963, under President David Dacko. In December 1965, Dacko appointed him Director of Agriculture and Minister of Development. In 1966, Jean-Bédel Bokassa took power in a coup d’état. Patassé was the “cousin” of President Bokassa’s principal wife, Catherine Denguiade, and gained the confidence of the new president, serving in almost all the governments formed by Bokassa. After Bokassa’s creation of the Council for the Central African Revolution (in imitation of Libya’s government council), Patassé was named a member of the Council of the Revolution with the rank of Prime Minister in charge of Posts and Communications, Tourism, Water, Forests, Hunting and Fishing, as well as Custodian of the Seats of State (4 September 1976 – 14 December 1976). During this period Patassé followed Bokassa in becoming a convert to Islam for a few months, and changed his name to Mustafa Patassé. After Bokassa became Emperor Bokassa I, Patassé was named Prime Minister and Head of the first Imperial Government. He remained in this position for 2 1/2 years, when a public announcement was made that Patassé had stepped down from office due to health problems. Patassé then left for France, where he remained in exile until the overthrow of Bokassa in September 1979. Shortly before Bokassa’s overthrow, Patassé announced his opposition to the Emperor and founded the Front de Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (FLPC; Front for the Liberation of the Central African People]).
Emperor Bokassa was overthrown and President David Dacko restored to power by the French in 1979. Dacko ordered Patassé to be put under house arrest. Patassé attempted to escape to the Republic of Chad, but failed and was arrested again. He was later released due to alleged health problems.

 Ministerial roles under Bokassa

  • Minister of Development (1 January 1966 – 5 April 1968)
  • Minister of Transport and Energy (5 April 1968 – 17 September 1969)
  • Minister of State for Development, Tourism, Transport and Energy (17 September 1969 – 4 February 1970)
  • Minister of State for Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Waters, Forests, Hunting, Tourism and Transport (4 February 1970 – 25 June 1970)
  • Minister of State for Development (25 June 1970 – 19 August 1970)
  • Minister of State for Transport and Commerce (19 August 1970 – 25 November 1970)
  • Minister of State for the Organization of Transport by Roads, Rivers and Air (25 November 1970 – 19 October 1971)
  • Minister of State for Civil Aviation (19 October 1971 – 13 May 1972)
  • Minister of State for delegated by the President of the Republic for Rural Development (13 May 1972 – 20 March 1973)
  • Minister of State for Public Health and Social Affairs (20 March 1973 – 16 October 1973)
  • Minister of State delegated by the President of the Republic for Missions (16 October 1973 – 1 February 1974)
  • Minister of State for Tourism, Waters, Forests, Hunting and Fishing (15 June 1974 – 4 April 1976)
  • Minister of State serving as Agricultural Councilor for the Head of State (10 April 1976 – 24 May 1976)
  • Minister of State for Tourism, Water, Forests, Hunting and Fishing (24 May 1976 – 4 September 1976)

1980s: Return to politics and further exile

Patassé returned to the CAR to present himself as a candidate for the presidential election of 15 March 1981, after which it was announced that Patassé gained 38% of the votes and thus came in second, after President Dacko. Patassé denounced the election results as rigged, which they clearly were. Several months later, on 1 September 1981, General André Kolingba overthrew Dacko in a bloodless coup and took power, after which he forbade political activity in the country. Patassé felt obliged to leave the Central African Republic to live in exile once again, but on 27 February 1982, Patassé returned to the Central African Republic and participated in an unsuccessful coup d’état against General Kolingba with the help of a few military officers such as General François Bozizé. Four days later, having failed to gain the support of the military forces, Patassé went in disguise to the French Embassy in order to seek refuge. After heated negotiations between President Kolingba and the French, Patassé was allowed to leave for exile in Togo. After remaining abroad for almost a decade, of which several years were spent in France, Patassé returned to the Central African Republic in 1992 to participate in presidential elections as head of the Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People (MLPC). The donor community, with the fall of the Soviet Union, saw no need to prop up the Kolingba regime and so had pressed for change helping to organise elections with some help from the UN Electoral Assistance Unit and with logistical support from the French army.

 1990s: Return to power

After the Kolingba regime sabotaged a first set of elections in 1992, which Patassé would have probably won, a second set of elections was held and on the second round on 19 September 1993, he came in first, defeating Kolingba, David Dacko and Abel Goumba, and took office on October 22, 1993. Largely thanks to the foreign pressure notably from the USA and technical support from the UN, for the first time the elections were fair and democratic. Patassé thus became the first president in the nation’s history to gain power by such means. He had the support of most of his own sara-kaba people, the largest ethno-linguistic group in the Central African Republic, as well as the Souma people of his “hometown” of Paoua and the Kare people of his mother. Most of his supporters lived in the most populous northwestern savanna regions of the CAR, and thus came to be called “northerners”, whereas all previous presidents were from either the forest or Ubangi river regions in the south, and so their supporters came to be called “southerners”. As a populist, Patassé promoted himself as a candidate who represented a majority of the population against the privileges of southerners who held a disproportionate number of lucrative jobs in the public and parastatal sectors of the economy. As President, Patassé began to replace many “southerners” with “northerners” in these jobs which infuriated many Yakoma people in particular who had benefited from the patronage of former President Kolingba.Template:FAct During Patassé’s first six-year term in office (22 October 1993 – 1999), the economy appeared to improve a little as the flow of donor money started up again following the elections and the apparent legitimacy they brought. There were three consecutive mutinies in 1996–1997, during which destruction of buildings and property had an adverse impact on the economy. The first mutiny began in May 1996. Patassé’s government successfully regained control with the help of François Bozizé and the French, but his obvious dependency on the French, against whom he had regularly railed, reduced his standing further. His subsequent use of Libyan troops as a body guard did nothing to help his reputation, either locally or with the donor community and the USA even closed their embassy temporarily. The last and most serious mutiny continued until early 1997, when a semblance of order was restored with the help of troops from Burkina Faso, Chad, Gabon, Mali, Senegal, and Togo. The Security Council of the United Nations approved a mission for peace, MINURCA, in 1998. MINURCA was made up of 1,350 African soldiers. These mutinies greatly increased the tension between “northerners” and “southerners” in the CAR and thus polarized society to a greater extent than before. In the presidential election of September 1999, Patassé won easily, defeating former presidents Kolingba and Dacko, winning in the first round with about 51.6% of the vote. Opposition leaders[who?] accused the elections of being rigged. During his second term, Patassé, whose rule had always been erratic and arbitrary,became increasingly unpopular. In 2000, he may have had his former prime-minister Jean-Luc Mandaba and his son poisoned on suspicion of planning a coup.[1]There were failed coup attempts against him in 2001 and 2002, which he suspected Andre Kolingba and/or General François Bozizé were involved in, but when Patassé attempted to have Bozizé arrested, the general left the country for Chad with military forces which were loyal to him.

 2003–2008: Ouster and criminal charges

Patassé left the country for a conference in Niger in 2003, and in his absence Bozizé seized Bangui on March 15. Although this takeover was internationally condemned, no attempt was made to depose the new leader. Patassé then went into exile in Togo.
Although nominated as the MLPC’s presidential candidate in November 2004, on December 30, 2004 Patassé was barred from running in the 2005 presidential election due to what the Constitutional Court considered problems with his birth certificate and land title. He was one of seven candidates barred, while five, including Bozizé, were permitted to stand. After an agreement signed in Libreville, Gabon on January 22, 2005, all barred presidential candidates were permitted to stand in the March 13 election except for Patassé, on the grounds that he was the subject of judicial proceedings. The MLPC instead backed his last prime minister, Martin Ziguélé, for president.
Patassé was accused of stealing 70 billion Central African francs from the country’s treasury. He denied this and in an interview with Agence France-Presse on December 21, 2004, he stated that he had no idea where he could have found so much money to steal in a country with a budget of only 90–100 billion francs. He was also accused of war crimes in connection with the violence that followed a failed 2002 coup attempt, in which rebels from the northern Democratic Republic of the Congo came to Patassé’s assistance, but were accused of committing many atrocities in the process. Patassé, the Congolese rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba and three others were charged in September 2004. [2] However, the government of the Central African Republic was unable to arrest them, so the courts referred the matter in April 2006 to the International Criminal Court.
In March 2006, the Central African government accused Patassé of recruiting rebels and foreign mercenaries, establishing a training camp for them on the Sudanese border, and planning to destabilize the country. [3] [4]
At an extraordinary congress of the MLPC in June 2006, Patassé was suspended from the party for one year, while Ziguélé was elected as President of the MPLC. [5] In August 2006 a court in the Central African Republic sentenced Patassé in absentia to 20 years of hard labor after a trial over the financial misconduct charges. [6] At the MLPC’s third ordinary congress in June 2007, Patassé was suspended from the party for three years, until the next party congress, with the threat of being expelled from the party altogether if he speaks on its behalf without approval while he is suspended. [7]

2008–2011: Return to Bangui, last presidential campaign, and death

On December 7, 2008, Patassé returned to the Central African Republic for the first time since his ouster in order to participate in a national dialogue, with the government’s permission. Arriving at the airport in Bangui, he kissed the ground and said that he had “not come to judge but to find grounds for entente and to tackle the problems of the Central African Republic”.[2] At the dialogue, Patassé said that the political situation should be resolved not through removing Bozizé from office, but through “democratic, transparent and fair elections in 2010″.[3]
Patassé said in June 2009 that he would be leaving his Togolese exile and returning to Bangui in preparation for the 2010 presidential election, in which he planned to stand as a candidate. Although Ziguélé had taken over the MPLC, Patassé declared that he would convene a party congress upon his return.[4] He eventually returned to Bangui on October 30, 2009, amidst a “discreet atmosphere”.[5] He subsequently met with Bozizé on November 9. Following the meeting, Patassé thanked Bozizé in a statement and said that they had discussed the Central African Republic’s problems “in a brotherly atmosphere”. He also reiterated his intention to stand as a presidential candidate in 2010.[6]
Patassé placed second in the January 2011 presidential election, far behind Bozizé, although ill-health had impeded his campaigning. He suffered from diabetes and was prevented from leaving the country for treatment in Equatorial Guinea in March 2011. He was eventually allowed to travel, but was hospitalised at Douala in Cameroon en route to Malabo, and died there on April 5, 2011.[7] There were calls for a state funeral.[8]

Personal life

While in exile in Togo from 1982 to 1992, Patassé separated from his first wife, Lucienne. He then married a Togolese woman, Angèle, and during his subsequent exile in Togo, beginning in 2003, he lived with her there. She died in Lomé on December 3, 2007 at the age of 52. [8]

 

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Gil Robbins, American folk singer (The Highwaymen) and actor, father of Tim Robbins died he was , 80.

 Gilbert Lee “Gil” Robbins  was an American folk singer, folk musician and actor. Robbins was a former member of the folk band, The Highwaymen died he was , 80.. The New York Times described Robbins as a “fixture on the folk-music scene.”[2] He was the father of actor and director, Tim Robbins.[3][4]

(April 3, 1931 – April 5, 2011)

Early life

Robbins was born in Spokane, Washington in 1931.[1] He moved with his family to Los Angeles, California, when he was less than one year old.[1] Robbins began playing with the percussion section of the Long Beach Symphony Orchestra as a high school student.[1] He received a scholarship to attend the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he joined the university’s marching band as a drum major.[2] He met his future wife, Mary Bledsoe, then a collegiate flautist, as a student at UCLA.[1] Robbins left UCLA before his graduation and enlisted in the United States Air Force in 1951.[1][2] During his time in the U.S. Air Force, Robbins became a conductor and drum major for the 542nd Division at an air force base in Selma, Alabama.[1][2]

Career

Robbins played with several bands and musicians early in his career. he became a member of the trio, Cumberland Three, in 1960.[2] The band had been formed by Roulette Records and musician John Stewart, who sent them New York City.[2] Robbins soon became active in the city’s folk music scenes, especially in Greenwich Village.[2] Robbins recorded three albums with the Cumberland Three, including two albums of American Civil War music.[2] Robbins left the Cumberland Three after three albums and joined the Belafonte Singers, a twelve member group which performed with Harry Belafonte.[2] He also performed with Tom Paxton.[1]
Robbins joined the folk band, The Highwaymen in 1962,[3] replacing departing member Stephen Trott, who left the band to attend Harvard Law School.[5] He remained as a member of the band for three years until its breakup in 1964.[2] Robbins, who appeared on five of the band’s albums, performed for the band as a guitarrón mexicano player, songwriter and baritone singer.[1][2] His live album credits with the band included Hootenanny With the Highwaymen, One More Time and Homecoming.[2] Robbins has been credited with influencing some of The Highwaymen more politically oriented music during his membership.[6]
Robbins became the manager of the The Gaslight Cafe, a former folk music club in New York City‘s Greenwich Village, during the late 1960s.[1][4] The club saw performances by well known musicians early in their careers, including Bob Dylan, Bonnie Raitt and Bruce Springsteen.[3][4] Robbins also became active within other sectors of the Greenwich Village community, including as the choir director of the Church of St. Joseph in Greenwich Village.[2] He also founded the Occassional Singers, a choral group which performed “avant garde” music, according to the New York Times.[2]
Outside of music, Robbins also pursued a career in acting. He worked as a stage actor in New York City, including off Broadway productions and musicals.[1][2] He was also cast in several small films roles, including Bob Roberts in 1992, Dead Man Walking in 1995, the 1999 dramatic film, Cradle Will Rock, and the 1998 M. Night Shyamalan film, Wide Awake.[1][2] Additionally, Robbins worked as a musical consultant and vocal coach.[3]

Death

Gil Robbins died at his home in Esteban Cantu, Baja California, Mexico from prostate cancer on April 5, 2011, two days after his 80th birthday.[3][2] He was survived by his wife of 58 years, Mary Robbins; their four children – Tim Robbins, Adele, David and Gabrielle – and four grandchildren. Mary died only 12 days later, on April 17, 2011, aged 78.[1][3]

 

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Larry Shepard, American baseball manager (Pittsburgh Pirates) and coach (Cincinnati Reds) died he was , 92

Lawrence William Shepard was a manager in Major League Baseball for the Pittsburgh Pirates from 1968 to 1969 died he was , 92. During his playing days, Shepard was a right-handed pitcher who played minor league baseball from 1941 through 1956, with time out for military service during World War II. He attended McGill University in Montréal, Québec.

(April 3, 1919 – April 5, 2011) 

Shepard became a playing manager in the Brooklyn Dodgers farm system in 1948, with Medford of the Class D Far West League. His club finished second, thanks to the 22–3 record of his star pitcher – Shepard himself. He then moved up to the Billings Mustangs of the Class C Pioneer League, where, as a pitcher, he won 21, 22 and 24 games in successive (1949–1951) seasons. As a skipper, his 1949 club won the league playoffs.
In 1952 and part of 1953, Shepard took a break from managing, becoming strictly a relief pitcher for the Hollywood Stars of the Pacific Coast League. Concurrently, he left the Dodger system for the Pirates organization. He resumed his managerial career in the middle of the 1953 season in the Pittsburgh system, winning the 1956 Western League title with the Lincoln Chiefs. From 1958 through 1966, he managed at the AAA level for Pittsburgh with the Salt Lake City Bees and Columbus Jets, notching three first-place finishes.
In 1967, Shepard reached the major league level when he was named pitching coach of the Philadelphia Phillies. After only one season, he was appointed manager of the Pirates. In his two seasons as skipper of the Bucs, he had a combined record of 164–155, finishing sixth in the ten-team National League in 1968 and third in the NL East in 1969. He was a manager of the legendary Roberto Clemente.
After his firing by the Pirates with seven games remaining in the ’69 season, Shepard returned to the coaching ranks. He was the pitching coach of the fabled Cincinnati Reds “Big Red Machine” dynasty under Sparky Anderson from 1970 through 1978, and finished his career in uniform in a similar post with the 1979 San Francisco Giants.

 

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John Adler, American politician, U.S. Representative from New Jersey (2009–2011), died from infective endocarditis he was , 51.

John Herbert Adler was a U.S. Representative for New Jersey’s 3rd congressional district, serving from 2009 until 2011 died from infective endocarditis he was , 51.. He was a member of the Democratic Party. He was formerly a member of the New Jersey Senate from 1992 to 2009, where he represented the 6th Legislative District. The district stretches from the suburbs of Philadelphia to Ocean County. He lost the 2010 congressional election to former football player Jon Runyan (of the Philadelphia Eagles).

(August 23, 1959 – April 4, 2011)

Early life, education and career

Adler was born in Philadelphia and moved to Haddonfield, New Jersey when he was two years old. His father owned a small dry cleaning store. When Adler was in high school, his father passed away after a series of heart attacks. Adler and his mother lost the family business, and survived off his father’s Social Security benefits for widows and minors. He attended Haddonfield Memorial High School. He went on to receive an B.A. from Harvard College in Government, and earned a J.D. from Harvard Law School.[4] He paid for law school through student loans, grants and working odd jobs throughout college.

Early political career

From 1988 until 1989, Adler served on the Cherry Hill Township Council. While serving on the Council, Adler passed the township’s ethics ordinance.[5]
In 1990, Adler challenged incumbent Jim Saxton for his seat in New Jersey’s 13th congressional district. Adler was defeated by Saxton by a margin of 60% to 40%.[6]

New Jersey State Senate

Adler was elected in 1991 to the New Jersey State Senate, where he served from 1992 until his inauguration into the U.S. House of Representatives in 2009. While in the New Jersey State Senate, Adler served on the Judiciary Committee (as Chair) and the Environment Committee. He served on the New Jersey Israel Commission since 1995, and on the New Jersey Intergovernmental Relations Commission from 1994 to 2002.[4]

Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/6/6e/John_Adler.jpg/220px-John_Adler.jpg
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Adler applauds a motion of the New Jersey Legislature.

[edit] Legislation

Adler was co-sponsor of the New Jersey Smoke-Free Air Act, enacted in 2006, which banned smoking in almost all public places.[7] Adler was one of three co-sponsors of a Senate bill submitted in 2008 that would extend the smoking ban to casinos and simulcasting facilities, which had been exempted in the earlier version of the ban.[8]
Adler co-sponsored legislation that strips government pensions from public employees who are convicted of or plead guilty to corruption charges.[9]
Adler co-sponsored a bill that would expand voting rights for military personnel and New Jersey citizens overseas to include state and local elections. The bill was signed into law on August 12, 2008 by Governor Corzine.[10]

U.S. House of Representatives

 Committee assignments

U.S. Congressman Adler was ranked by The National Journal as one of the ten most centrist members in the House of Representatives. He is ranked as 50.5 percent liberal and 49.5 percent conservative.[11]

Legislation

Description: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/f/f2/Edit-clear.svg/40px-Edit-clear.svg.png
This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (July 2010)
  • In November 2009 and March 2010, Adler voted against House and the Senate Health Care bills.[12][13][14] He did not signed a petition circulated by Iowa Republican Steve King calling for a complete repeal of the law.[15]
  • Adler was in favor of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.[16]
  • Adler voted against the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), and has voted to end the program.[17]
  • Adler voted in favor of the American Clean Energy and Security Act.[18]
  • Congressman Adler has voted for the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. He also voted for legislation that would prevent credit card companies from taking advantage of consumers by banning commonly occurred abuses.[19][20]
  • In January 2009, Adler announced his first bill as a U.S. Representative: the Safeguarding America’s Seniors and Veterans Act. A version of this bill passed and provided a $250 one-time economic recovery payment for seniors and disabled veterans.[21] The bill was designed to provide non-working seniors and veterans with the same $500 tax credit that all working Americans received through the Making Work Pay tax credit in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.[22]

Political campaigns

2004 presidential election

On October 7, 2003, along with Rep. Bill Pascrell of New Jersey’s 8th Congressional District, Adler formally endorsed Senator John Kerry for President and became the Co-Chairman of John Kerry’s campaign in the Garden State. Shortly afterwards on December 19, 2003, Governor of New Jersey Jim McGreevey and most of the New Jersey Democratic Party came out in support of Former Governor of Vermont Howard Dean for President. Because of this endorsement for Kerry, and Kerry’s decisive win in the Democratic Primary, Adler was rumored to be the frontrunner for U.S. Attorney for New Jersey if the Senator from Massachusetts had won the 2004 presidential election.

 2008

On September 20, 2007, Adler announced that he planned to challenge Saxton in New Jersey’s 3rd congressional district.[23] On November 9, 2007, Saxton announced that he would not seek reelection in 2008, citing prostate cancer, leaving the seat open in the upcoming congressional elections.[24] Adler was unopposed in the Democratic primary, and faced Republican Medford Mayor, Lockheed Martin executive, and Gulf War veteran Chris Myers.[25]
During the 2008 election cycle, Adler was one of the first elected officials in New Jersey to endorse Barack Obama for the Democratic presidential nomination in a state where the party establishment supported Hillary Clinton. Adler held a financial advantage over his opponent through all of the race, holding a 10-1 or 5-1 funding edge over Myers for a majority of the campaign.[26] Adler had raised the most money in the country of any non-incumbent congressional candidate.[27][28]
Adler received a number of endorsements for the election, including those from the Teamsters, Fraternal Order of Police, National Association of Police Organizations, Professional Firefighters Association of New Jersey,[29] New Jersey Environmental Federation, The Sierra Club, the Humane Society Legislative Fund, The National Committee to Preserve Social Security and Health Care, and the Recreational Fishing Alliance.[30][31][32]
The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee committed $1.7 million in ad buys to Adler’s campaign.[33] In comparison, the NRCC committed $84,200 in coordinated ad buys with the Myers campaign, in addition to help the NRCC gave in financing an internal poll in September with the Myers campaign. Myers also benefited from two ad buys by the 501(c)(4) organization Freedom’s Watch, which attacked John Adler on his tax record, his legislative history, and contributions he received from subprime mortgage companies.[34][35]
Adler won a majority of newspaper endorsements. He was endorsed by the Press of Atlantic City,[36] the Philadelphia Inquirer,[37] the New York Times, [38] the Burlington County Times,[39] the Courier Post,[40] Myers received the endorsement of the Asbury Park Press.[41]
The 3rd district race was the last one to be called in New Jersey on Election Night 2008. Adler ultimately defeated Myers with 52.08% of the vote to Myers’ 47.92%.[42] He was sworn into his position as the Congressman from the 3rd district of New Jersey in the United States House of Representatives on January 6, 2009, the first Democrat to represent this district in 123 years.[citation needed]

 2010

Adler was challenged by Republican nominee Jon Runyan, NJ Tea Party nominee Peter DeStefano, Libertarian nominee Russ Conger, and Your Country Again nominee Lawrence J. Donahue.
Runyan is a former Philadelphia Eagles star and a Mount Laurel resident. Republicans will be heavily targeting this seat in this election cycle.[43] A potential warning sign for Adler came in the New Jersey gubernatorial race in 2009, when Republican candidate Chris Christie carried Adler’s district by 17 points over Democratic Governor Jon Corzine [44]
Some Democratic operatives have asserted that Adler campaign staffers and the Camden County Democratic Committee (CCDC) recruited Tea Party candidate Peter DeStefano in an attempt to split the conservative vote and benefit Adler. New Jersey Tea Party groups said they had never heard of DeStefano until he had a strong showing in a July poll released by the Adler campaign.[45] On October 8, 2010, the Associated Press reported, based on the details of an earlier article at CourierPostOnline.com, that there was “mounting evidence” that the Democrats recruited DeStefano. The article noted that a Democratic Party employee ran DeStefano’s website and that many of the signatures on DeStefano’s nominating petitions belonged to Democrats – including a former Adler campaign staffer.[46] Reportedly, Steve Ayscue, the paid head of operations for CCDC, and Geoff Mackler, Adler’s campaign manager, presented a plan at CCDC Headquarters during a May 26 meeting of the South Jersey Young Democrats, and some of those present soon joined in circulating a petition to place Peter DeStefano on the ballot.[47] DeStefano will appear on the “NJ Tea Party” line on the November 2 ballot.[47] Adler denies the allegations.[48][49] DeStefano called the suggestion that he is a Democratic plant “a bunch of crap”.[48]
Governor Chris Christie campaigned hard for Runyan, calling Adler a “career politician”. Adler lost in the 2010 midterm elections against Runyan.[50]

Personal life

Adler met his wife Shelley, in law school. He converted to her faith of Judaism in 1985, having been raised an Episcopalian.[51] After they graduated, they returned to South Jersey and settled down in Cherry Hill. They resided in Cherry Hill with their four sons until his death.

Death

In March 2011, Adler contracted a staph infection which resulted in endocarditis leading to emergency surgery. He never recovered and died on April 4, 2011. He is survived by his wife and four sons.[52]

 

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Scott Columbus, American drummer (Manowar) died he was , 54.

Scott Columbus  was an American musician and the former drummer of Manowar died he was , 54.. Reportedly he was discovered by a female fan of the band, beating aluminium in a local foundry.[1] With the band from 1983-90, he was eventually forced to leave the band when his son fell ill. He was replaced by Rhino for The Triumph of Steel but returned for Louder Than Hell and remained with the band until the summer of 2008 when he was replaced once again by Rhino during Manowar’s performances in Bulgaria and Magic Circle Festival 2008[2].

(November 10, 1956 — April 4, 2011)

Manowar never officially announced Columbus’s departure in 2008. In an interview with Classic Rock magazine, Scott said “I’d say it was about April 2008. When Mr. DeMaio [Joey DeMaio, MANOWAR bassist/mainman] and myself agreed to disagree on a few points of interest. That leads us up to today. You know what? I had a long and wonderful career with MANOWAR; I have no regrets, it’s just life moves on. When asked about his departure in the early 90′s Scott said “It was the very end of 1989 leading into 1990. I was officially gone in 1990, the first time. I can just tell you and the world that my son was never sick. So you can deduce from that what you may. However, that’s what I’ll tell you [concerning the official statement].”[3]
Columbus played the so-called “Drums of Doom”, a kit made of stainless steel, because his drumming technique is too rough on standard kits which had to be replaced too regularly. [4]

Death

On April 5, 2011, Manowar’s official Facebook, and Manowar’s official website,[5] posted the following:
“With great sorrow we announce the passing of our brother Scott Columbus. A rare talent, equally a rare individual, a father, a friend and a brother of metal. All of the great moments we spent together are burnished in our hearts and memories forever. We know he is in a good place and at peace. He will never be forgotten.” Your family and brothers, Joey, Eric, Karl, Donnie. And all at Magic Circle Music.

 

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Jackson Lago, Brazilian politician, Governor of Maranhão (2007–2009), died from cancer he was , 76

Jackson Kléper Lago  was a Brazilian physician and politician died from cancer he was , 76. He served as governor of Maranhão from January 1, 2007 to April 16, 2009, when the Brazilian Supreme Electoral Court repealed his term. Before being elected governor of Maranhão, Lago was the mayor of São Luís on three occasions (1989–1992, 1997–2000, and 2001–2002).

(November 1, 1934 – April 4, 2011)

Political career

Born in the municipality of Pedreiras, Maranhão, Jackson Lago began his political career in the late 1960s, participating in events against the military dictatorship. A member of the doctors’ union, Lago was a pioneer in the performance of thoracic surgeries in the public health system of Maranhão and taught at the Medicine School of the State. In 1979, he helped to found the Democratic Labour Party, of which he has always been a member, in Maranhão.[2]
In 1989, Lago was elected and assumed office as Mayor of São Luís for the first time. On 1996 he was elected by the second time and assumed office on January 1, 1997 for his second term. In 2000 he was re-elected and assumed office on January 1, 2001 for the third time. Lago achieved the title of best mayor in Brazil, being so-named according to research conducted by the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo.[3] Lago considered the expansion of the number of students in public schools and the improved training of teachers to have been his greatest achievements as the head the mayor of São Luís.[2] The Lago administration was also recognized for advances in public health, generation of employment and income, public safety, public participation, infrastructure, environment and culture, among others.[3]
Lago resigned his last term as mayor of São Luís to run to become the governor of Maranhão. Counting initially on the support of only about 20% of the electorate, Lago surprised opinion polling and was elected in the second round with 51.82% of the valid votes against 48.18% of former governor Roseana Sarney.[4] An IBOPE survey commissioned by TV Mirante indicated that Sarney would win the election in the first round. Only the Toledo & Associates Institute, hired by the newspaper O Imparcial, foresaw the possibility of runoff voting in the state.[5] During his campaign, Lago bet on the political wear of the Sarneys, strongly denouncing the alleged corruption cases involving the group linked with them. Lago’s campaign material was shared with President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, although Lula declared his public support for Roseana Sarney. His election was celebrated as a victory against the 40-year rule of the Sarney oligarchy in the state.[2]

 Repeal

Lago was accused by the coalition of the defeated candidate of committing electoral crimes, such as abuse of power and buying votes, during the elections of 2006. On March 2, 2009, the Supreme Electoral Court tried a lawsuit by the coalition of the defeated candidate Roseana Sarney and decided, by 5-2 votes, to revoke the terms of both Lago and Luiz Carlos Porto, the vice-governor of Maranhão and a member of the Popular Socialist Party. Contrary to what the Electoral law demands , the holding of new elections[citation needed] , the Court instead decided that the candidate who placed second in the elections would assume the vacated office.
On April 16, 2009, the Supreme Federal Court in denying all appeals confirmed the repeal of both the Lago and Porto mandates. It also confirmed that Roseana Sarney would assume office. However, Lago refused to leave the Palácio dos Leões, the seat of government. On April 18, he left the palace with members of his party and even of Lula’s Workers’ Party, in addition to members of social movements such as the Landless Workers’ Movement, and led a march to the local seat of the Democratic Labour Party. There, he promised his supporters to continue his political career. He lost the 2010 gubernatorial election overwhelmingly, taking third place with 19.5% of the vote, while Sarney was re-elected.

Death

Jackson Lago died of prostate cancer on April 4, 2011 in São Paulo at the age of 76.[6]

Family

Lago was married with Maria Moreira Clay Lago, also a doctor, with whom he had three children. Maria Clay was the State Secretary of Human Solidarity during the term of governor José Reinaldo Tavares, after his rupture with the Sarney family in May 2004.

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Ned McWherter, American politician, Speaker of the Tennessee House of Representatives (1973–1987) and Governor (1987–1995), died from cancer he was , 80

Ned Ray McWherter was an American politician who served as the 46th Governor of Tennessee from 1987 to 1995 died from cancer he was , 80.[1] He was a Democrat.
McWherter was born in Palmersville, in Tennessee’s northwest corner.[2] He was a member of the United Methodist Church, McWherter served for 21 years in the Tennessee National Guard before retiring with the rank of captain.

(October 15, 1930 – April 4, 2011)

Early political career

McWherter began his political career in 1968 when he won a seat in the Tennessee House of Representatives from Weakley County. After only serving two terms in the General Assembly, he was elected Speaker of the House. He held this position for 14 years, longer than anyone in Tennessee history at that time.[2] During his time in the legislature, he served in the following areas: State Building Commission, Joint Fiscal Review Committee, the Council on Pensions and Retirement, the Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial Development Commission, and the State Agri-Industries Board. He was also the chairman of the House Calendar and Rules Committee, the House Finance, Ways, and Means Committee and the House General Welfare Committee.

Statewide office

In 1986 McWherter won a spirited[citation needed] primary over Public Service Commissioner Jane Eskind and Nashville mayor Richard Fulton for the Democratic nomination for governor. He faced former Republican governor Winfield Dunn in what was initially considered one of the hotter races of the 1986 cycle. However, Dunn’s campaign stalled when 1st District Congressman Jimmy Quillen, the de facto leader of the Republican Party in East Tennessee, refused to support Dunn and encouraged several prominent East Tennessee Republicans to withhold their support as well. Quillen had never forgiven Dunn for his opposition to a medical school at East Tennessee State University. Without significant support in East Tennessee for Dunn, McWherter was virtually assured of election in November. Dunn was able only to hold McWherter’s victory margin to just under nine points due to strong support from his former base in Memphis. While several former state House speakers have risen to the governorship, McWherter is the only person to hold that post right up to the time he was elected governor.
During his first term, McWherter insisted that all formal governmental proceedings be open to the public and press, thus implementing the spirit, as well as the letter, of the “sunshine law” he had helped to author and sponsor while a member of the House. He had opened doors to minority groups in Tennessee as Speaker by appointing the first black committee chairmen in Southern history and assisted women into influential leadership roles in the legislature. His “21st Century Schools” education reform program launched similar programs in other states and his replacement of the Medicaid program with the TennCare system gained national attention. As governor, he also served nationally and local on councils and committees including the board of governors, Council of State Governments, the Executive Committees of the Southern Conference, the Weakley County Head Start Program and the Executive Committee of the Northwest Tennessee Economic Development District. [[ In 1990, McWherter was invited to speak at a chapel service at Freed-Hardeman University in Henderson, Tennessee at the request of his life-long friend, E. Claude Gardner, then President of the University.
He was overwhelmingly re-elected to a second term in 1990, carrying approximately two-thirds of the vote over the essentially token candidacy of the Republican nominee, first-term state representative Dwight Henry. (Many prominent Tennessee Republicans actually supported McWherter for re-election, some tacitly, others fairly openly.) A tax study commission appointed during his first term reported at the beginning of his second, recommending a state income tax be implemented. An income tax has long been considered the third rail of Tennessee politics. McWherter gave the idea lukewarm support at first, but the idea was eventually dropped entirely, not to resurface again during his time as governor.
During McWherter's second term, Senator Al Gore was elected Vice President, thus creating a vacancy in the Senate. McWherter appointed his deputy governor, Harlan Matthews, to serve as U.S. Senator until the 1994 election.

Post-Governorship

McWherter would have been an overwhelming favorite for a third term if he had been permitted to run for one by the state constitution; when asked about this, he stated that he would not have run for another term even if it had been permissible. Following the end of his second term as governor in 1995, McWherter was appointed to the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service by President Bill Clinton. McWherter lived the remainder of his life in Tennessee, where he was very active in the Tennessee Democratic Party. His business holdings included several nursing homes and a beer distributorship.
McWherter was married to the late Bette Jean Beck McWherter, who died in 1973, and is the father of two children. His son Michael Ray McWherter is a businessman and was a candidate in the 2010 Tennessee gubernatorial race, and his daughter Linda Ramsey is a doctor of physical education at the University of Tennessee at Martin.[3] He funded the construction of the library at the University of Memphis and the Learning Resources Center at Middle Tennessee State University, and both both buildings have been named in his honor.
McWherter died on April 4, 2011 in a Nashville hospital where he was being treated for cancer .[4] He was 80 years old.

 

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Juliano Mer-Khamis, Israeli actor and political activist, was shot. and killed he was , 52

 Juliano Mer-Khamis was an Israeli actor, director, filmmaker and political activist of Jewish and Christian Arab parentage , was shot. and killed he was , 52. On 4 April 2011, he was assassinated by a masked gunman in the Palestinian city of Jenin, where he established the Freedom Theatre.

( ‎29 May 1958 – 4 April 2011

Biography

Juliano Khamis (later Mer-Khamis) was born in Nazareth, the son of Arna Mer, a Jewish communist, and Saliba Khamis, an Israeli-Arab intellectual and one of the leaders of the Israeli Communist Party in the 1950s. He had two brothers, Spartacus and Abir.[4] His grandfather was Gideon Mer, a scientist who pioneered the study of malaria during the British Mandate.[5] In his youth, he adopted his maternal surname, Mer, and served in the Israeli Defense Forces as a combat soldier in the Paratroopers Brigade.[6] In a 2009 interview with Israel Army Radio, Mer-Khamis said of his background: “I am 100 percent Palestinian and 100 percent Jewish.” [7]
Mer-Khamis was married to Jenny, a Finnish activist he met in Haifa. They had a son, Jay, and were expecting the birth of twins at the time of his death.[8]

Film and acting career

Mer-Khamis’s first film, The Little Drummer Girl, was an American thriller from 1984 directed by George Roy Hill and starring Diane Keaton, which dealt with the Israeli-Arab conflict. He starred in Avi Nesher‘s film, Za’am V’Tehilah (1985). Later he appeared in such Israeli films as 51 Bar (1985), Wedding in Galilee (1987), Tel Aviv Stories (1992), Zohar (1993), Under the Domim Tree (1994), and Overture 1812 (1997). He appeared in several films by Amos Gitai: Kedma, Esther (1986) and Kippur (2000).[9]
In 2002, Mer-Khamis was nominated for the Ophir award for Best Actor for his role in Kedma.[10] One of the last films in which he appeared was the Palestinian film Salt of this Sea (2008), which was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
He performed on stage with Beit Lessin Theater and Habima Theatre. In 2003, he produced and directed his first documentary film, Arna’s Children, together with Danniel Danniel. The film is about his mother’s work to establish a children’s theatre group in Jenin during the 1980s. Seven years after the death of his mother, and following the battle in Jenin in 2002, Mer-Khamis returned to Jenin to meet and interview the children who participated in the theater, and found out that some became militants and were killed.[citation needed]
In 2006, following a wave of international support which was followed by his film, Mer-Khamis opened a community theater for children and adults in Jenin, called The Freedom Theatre.

The Freedom Theatre

Juliano Mer-Khamis lying in state at the al-Midan Theatre, Haifa

In 2006, Mer-Khamis established the Freedom Theatre along with Zakaria Zubeidi, a former military leader of the Jenin Al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades, Jonatan Stanczak, Swedish-Israeli activist, and Dror Feiler, Swedish-Israeli artist. The Freedom Theatre is a community theatre that provides opportunities for the children and youth of the Jenin Refugee Camp by developing skills, self-knowledge and confidence and using the creative process as a model for social change.[11]

Death

Mer-Khamis was shot by masked gunmen in front of the theater he founded in Jenin.[12] He was rushed to the Jenin Hospital, where he was pronounced dead after his arrival.[13] PA Prime Minister Salam Fayyad condemned the killing saying that “We cannot stand silent in the face of this ugly crime, it constitutes a grave violation that goes beyond all principles and human values and it contravenes with the customs and ethics of co-existence.”[14]
Based on the testimony of an eyewitness, Palestinian police charged Mujahed Qaniri, from Jenin’s refugee camp, with having carried out the murder. There are varying accounts of Qamiri’s affiliation, some describe him as a former member of the al-Aqsa Martyrs’ Brigades who defected to Hamas, but a Hamas spokesman has denied any involvement, describing this as a purely criminal incident.[15] [12]

Filmography

Year
Film
Role
Notes
1984
Julio
1985
Hassan (terrorist)
1985
1985
Thomas
1986
1987
Wedding in Galilee (Urs al-Jalil)
Officer
1989
Menahme
1993
Sipurei Tel-Aviv (Tel Aviv Stories)
Jeno
1993
Morris
1993
Ramon
1994
Antonio Valdez
1994
Under the Domim Tree (Etz Hadomim Tafus)
Ariel
1994
Jules
1997
2000
Jesus Carrero
2000
The Captain
2002
Moussa
2003
Himself
2004
Nagim
Nominated for Best Actor
2008
Hiking leader
Palestinian submission for Oscar in “Best Foreign Language Film” category
2009
Israeli soldier
2010
Shaikh Saabah

Television and video

Year
Title
Role
Notes
1995
Ali
Series
1992
Melito
Series – played in “Don’t Say Nothing Bad About My Baby” episode
1995
Centurion
Video
1996
Centurion
Video
1998
Remi
Series
2001
Eitan Katz
TV movie
2006
Omar
TV movie

 

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Did you know that Barbacks stock the bar with liquor, ice, glassware, beer, garnishes, and so on, and usually receive a portion of the bartender’s tips; often around 10% to 20%, or a portion of total sales; from 1.5% to 3%?

Did you know that a barback (or “runner” as they are commonly known in Europe) is a bartender‘s assistant?

Did you know that Barbacks work in nightclubs, bars, restaurants and catering halls?

Did you know that Barbacks stock the bar with liquor, ice, glassware, beer, garnishes, and so on, and usually receive a portion of the bartender’s tips; often around 10% to 20%, or a portion of total sales; from 1.5% to 3%?

Did you know that Barbacks are often under the tutelage of bartenders and work their way into the profession?

Did you know that a Barbacks are primarily responsible for simplifying a bartender’s job?

Did you know that barbacks are responsible for supporting the bartender(s)?

Did you know that dishwashing and bussing tables are also common duties, though much experience in bussing may be required before one earns the position of barback?

Did you know that in almost all of the United States, the legal drinking age is 21,  however, the legal age for working as a bartender or barback varies from 18 to 21?

Did you know that the barback often starts working hours before the bartender arrives, and is still working for some time after the bartender is done?

Did you know that the barback may also be involved with a bar’s inventory control; reporting opening / closing levels by weighing liquor bottles & making bottle counts?

Now if you didn’t know, now you know…
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Did you know that androgynous individual is simply a female or male who has a high degree of both feminine (expressive) and masculine (instrumental) traits?

Did you know that Androgyny is a term—derived from the Greek words referring to the combination of masculine and feminine characteristics?

Did you know that Androgyny may be seen in fashionsexual identity, or sexual lifestyle, or it may refer to biologically inter-sexed physicality, especially with regards to plant and human sexuality?

Did you know that the word androgynous

is an adjective?


Did you know that an androgyne in terms of gender identity, is a person who does not fit cleanly into the typical masculine and feminine gender roles of their society?

Did you know that many androgynes identify as being mentally “between” woman and man, or as entirely genderless?
Now if you didn’t know, now you know…
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10 people got busted on April 16, 2011

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Did you know that Snake Away is sprinkled onto grass and acts as a fumigant, The odor repels snakes and may last for several months?

Did you know that if you Eliminate debris such as wood or rock piles on your property it will help to Keep Away Snakes?


Did you know that implementing a good rodent control program will cause any snakes to relocate to another place?

Did you know that if there are too many snakes you may have to set up some type of snake control program?


Did you know that Snake Away is sprinkled onto grass and acts as a fumigant, The odor repels snakes and may last for several months?

 Did yo know that the mere presence of a dog or cat in the yard, and their associated odors, will often discourage a snake from venturing into your pet’s “territory” Snakes see the household pet as a predator and will prefer to avoid them if possible?

Did you know that powdered sulfur also can be used as snake repellent?


Did you know that any noxious smelling substance like naphthalene mothballs will discourage any ground crawling animals, including snakes, from the treated area?”

Now if you didn’t know, now you know…


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21 people got busted on April 15, 2011

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Did you know that in 1954, Congress renamed Decoration Day, calling it the holiday Memorial Day and eventually dubbed Waterloo its official birthplace?

Did you know that Decoration Day (Memorial Day) began in 1865?
 Did you know that Decoration Day was thought of in the mind of Henry Welles, a druggist in tiny Waterloo, N.Y., who wanted to honor the memory of those who died in the Civil War?
He found an ally in a friend and customer, Union Army Brig. Gen. John Murray. A year later, they led Waterloo in the first annual observance of a day honoring fallen soldiers. Flags were lowered to half-mast, and locals joined in a parade to three local cemeteries to pay their respects. Some argue that similar traditions had already seized grieving communities across the nation, especially in the war-torn South. 
Did you know that because of Maj. Gen. John Logan, a friend of Murray and the founder of an organization of Union veterans is largely why the credit today goes to Waterloo?
Did you know that Maj. Gen. John Logan in 1868, designated May 30 as the day to honor dead comrades—largely by scattering flower petals at their grave sites—and ordered local communities to join in Waterloo’s celebration?
Did you know that President Ulysses S. Grant even presided over a ceremony in 1868  at Arlington National Cemetery , then know as Decoration Day?
Did you know that after World War I, Decoration Day came to include all fallen American soldiers?
Did you know that in 1954, Congress renamed Decoration Day, calling it the holiday Memorial Day and eventually dubbed Waterloo its official birthplace?
Did you know that through the decades, the date of May 30 remained fixed, But that changed in 1971 when Congress declared Memorial Day an official holiday and altered its observance to the last Monday in May?
Now if you didn’t know, now you know…
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Wayne Robson, Canadian actor (The Red Green Show) died he was , 64.

Wayne Robson was a Canadian television, film and stage actor best known for playing the part of Mike Hamar, an ex-convict and sometime thief, on the Canadian sitcom The Red Green Show from 1993 to 2006, as well as in the 2002 film Duct Tape Forever died he was , 64..

(April 29, 1946 – April 4, 2011) 

Robson was born in Vancouver, British Columbia. He began his acting career in Vancouver, acting on stage. In the 1970s he moved to Toronto, Ontario, Canada, where he continued his stage acting career and appeared in Canadian television commercials. After receiving several small character roles in films such as McCabe & Mrs. Miller (1971) and Popeye (1980), Robson starred in the 1984 film The Grey Fox for which he was nominated for a Genie Award for Best Supporting Actor.
Robson voiced Bloom in the cartoon Pippi Longstocking and Matthew Cuthbert in “Anne of Green Gables: The Animated Series“. Robson played minor characters in such films as Finders Keepers (1984), One Magic Christmas (1985), Parents (1989), Dolores Claiborne (1995), Two If by Sea (1996), Cube (1997), Welcome to Mooseport (2004), and Survival of the Dead (2009). He appeared as Holly Hunter’s ailing father, Tug Jones in the TV movie Harlan County War (2000). Robson was nominated and won several Gemini Awards. He also appeared in the TV series and miniseries The Good Germany, Puppets Who Kill, Franklin, Relic Hunter, and Lexx.
Robson died on April 4, 2011 at the age of 64.[1]

 

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Ulli Beier, German writer died he was , 88.

 Horst Ulrich (Ulli) Beier was a German editor, writer and scholar, who had a pioneering role in developing literature, drama and poetry in Nigeria, as well as literature, drama and poetry in Papua New Guinea died he was , 88.. His wife Georgina Beier had an instrumental role in simultaneously stimulating the visual arts in both Nigeria and Papua New Guinea.

(30 July 1922 – 3 April 2011) 

Beier was born in Glowitz, Germany, in July 1922. His father was a medical doctor and an appreciator of art and raised his son to embrace the arts. After the Nazi party’ rise to power, the Beiers, who are non-practicing Jews, left for Palestine. In Palestine, while his family were briefly detained as enemy aliens by the British authorities, Ulli Beier was able to earn a BA as an external student from the University of London. However, he later moved to London to earn a degree in Phonetics. A few years later, after his first marriage to the Austrian artist Susanne Wenger, he was given a faculty position at the University of Ibadan to teach Phonetics.

Career

While at the University, Beier transferred from the Phonetics department to the Mural Studies department. It was at the Mural Studies department he became interested in Yoruba culture and arts. Though, he was a teacher at Ibadan, he ventured outside the city and lived in nearby cities, of Ede, Ilobu and Osogbo, this gave him an avenue to see the spatial environment of different Yoruba communities. In 1956, after visiting the First Congress of Negro Artists and Writers organized by Presence Africaine at the Sorbonne, in Paris, France Ulli Beier returned to Ibadan and founded the magazine Black Orpheus, the name was inspired by Jean Paul Sartre‘s essay “Orphée Noir”. The journal quickly became the leading space for Nigerian authors to write and publish their work. The journal became known for its innovative works and literary excellence and was widely acclaimed. Later in 1961, Beier, co-founded the Mbari Artists and Writers Club, Ibadan, a place for new writers, dramatist and artists, to meet and perform their work. In 1962, he co-founded (with the dramatist Duro Ladipo) Mbari-Mbayo, Osogbo. In the early 1980s he founded and directed the Iwalewa Haus, an art centre at the University of Bayreuth in Germany.
Ulli Beier was known for his efforts in translating African literary works. He emerged as one of the scholars who introduced African writers to a large international audience for his works in translating plays of dramatists such as Duro Ladipo and publishing Modern Poetry (1963) an anthology of African poems.
After Beier left Nigeria in 1968, he worked in Papua New Guinea and intermittently returned to Nigeria for brief periods. While in Papua New Guinea, he co-organised with Georgina Beier the country’s first art exhibition, at the University of Papua New Guinea’s Centre for New Guinea Cultures, featuring artwork by Timothy Akis. Ulli Beier created the literary periodical Kovave: A Journal of New Guinea literature, which reproduced works by Papua New Guinean artists including Timothy Akis and Mathias Kauage.[2] His efforts have been described as significant in facilitating the emergence of Papua New Guinean literature.[3]
While in Papua New Guinea, he encouraged Albert Maori Kiki to record his autobiography, which Beier transcribed and edited. The book, Ten Thousand Years in a Lifetime was published in 1968.[4]
He lived in Sydney, Australia with his wife and artist Georgina Beier. Beier died aged 88 on 3 April 2011 at his home in Annandale.

Published works

  • Voices of Independence: New Black Writing from Papua New Guinea, New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1980. 251 pp.s
  • Editor: The Penguin Book of Modern African Poetry, 1999.
  • Black Orpheus: An Anthology of New African and Afro-American Stories, 1965.
  • Thirty Years of Oshogbo Art, Iwalewa House, Bayreuth, 1991.
  • Neue Kunst in Afrika: das Buch zur Austellung, Reimer, Berlin, 1980 (Contemporary Art in Africa, Pall Mall Press, London, 1968).
  • A Year of Sacred Festivals in One Yoruba Town, Nigeria Magazine, Marina, Lagos, Nigeria, 1959.

 

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Martin Horton, English cricketer, died after a long illness he was , 76.

Martin John Horton  was an English cricketer, who played in two Tests in 1959 died after a long illness he was , 76. He was born in Worcester, England, and played the bulk of his first-class cricket for his native county.
Cricket writer, Colin Bateman, noted that Horton was, “a versatile all-rounder who could bat anywhere in the top six and who twice took more than 100 wickets in a season with his off-spin…”

(21 April 1934 – 3 April 2011)

Life and career

Horton made his debut for Worcestershire in 1952, and was an integral part of the side which won the County Championship in 1964 (for the first time in the county’s history) and 1965.[1] He passed 1,000 runs in a season on 11 occasions, scoring 2,468 runs in 1959, the year he won his two Test caps. He scored a half century against India in his first Test and took 2 for 24 in his second. He was dropped from the side, never to return. He achieved the double in 1955 and 1961, and he took 9 for 56 against the 1955 South Africans. In nearly two decades of cricket, he took 825 first-class wickets in all and scored 23 centuries with the bat.
In 1966, Horton moved to New Zealand and played four seasons of cricket with Northern Districts before becoming the national team’s coach, a position he maintained for seventeen seasons. He remained there until 1983, when he returned to Worcester to become cricket coach at the Royal Grammar School, a post he held until 1996. He also became chairman of Worcestershire County Cricket Club.
Horton died following a long illness in April 2011.[2]

 

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Kevin Jarre American screenwriter (Tombstone, Glory, The Mummy),


Kevin Jarre was an American screenwriter, actor, and film producer died from heart failure he was , 56.

(August 6, 1954 – April 3, 2011) 

Jarre was born in Detroit, Michigan, to actress Laura Devon who subsequently married Maurice Jarre in the mid-1960s, and hence was the adoptive half-brother to French composer Jean-Michel Jarre. Of his more well-known film scripts include Rambo: First Blood Part II, Glory, and Tombstone. Jarre wrote the screenplays for The Mummy and The Devil’s Own as well, while also producing The Jackal. He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay and a WGA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for writing Glory.
Jarre died in Santa Monica, California of heart failure, age 56.[1]

 

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Calvin Russell, American protest singer-songwriter and guitarist died he was , 62

Calvin Russell  was an American roots rock singer-songwriter and guitarist died he was , 62..
Born Calvert Russell Kosler, at the age of twelve he started to learn guitar and at thirteen joined a band called ‘The Cavemen’. In 1989 he met Patrick Mathe of the French record label New Rose. After his first album was released, Russell started touring in Europe in 1990, and became quite popular there while remaining fairly unknown at home.[1]
Russell died on April 3, 2011 in Garfield, Texas of cancer at the age of 62.[2]

(November 1, 1948 – April 3, 2011)

Discography


  • A Crack in Time (1990)
  • Sounds from the Fourth World (1991)
  • Soldier (1992)
  • Le Voyageur – Live (1993)
  • Dream of the Dog (1995)
  • Calvin Russell (1997)
  • The Story of Calvin Russell – This Is My life (1998)
  • Sam (1999)
  • Crossroad (2000)
  • Rebel Radio (2002)
  • A Man in Full (2004)
  • In Spite of It All (2005)
  • Unrepentant (2007)
  • Dawg Eat Dawg (2009)
  • Contrabendo (2011)

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    Mandi Schwartz, Canadian college ice hockey player, died from acute myeloid leukemia she was , 23.

    Mandi Jocelyn Schwartz  was a Canadian player with the Yale Bulldogs women’s ice hockey team  died from acute myeloid leukemia she was , 23.. In December 2008 — her junior year at Yale University — Schwartz was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. Her diagnosis and search for a bone marrow or stem cell transplant resulted in bone marrow drives being held at Yale and in Canada. While bone marrow drives held at Yale University did not result in a match for Schwartz, they did result in six matches for other patients on the registry who were waiting for a transplant. She underwent a stem cell transplant from donated umbilical cord blood in September 2010. In December 2010, she learned that the cancer had returned and discontinued most forms of treatment. Schwartz died in Regina, Saskatchewan, at the age of 23.

    (February 3, 1988 – April 3, 2011)

    Hockey career

    Schwartz played minor hockey at Athol Murray College of Notre Dame in Wilcox, Saskatchewan.[1] She joined the Yale Bulldogs after graduating high school in 2006.[1] Schwartz attended evaluation camps for Canadian national women’s ice hockey team hosted by Hockey Canada.[1]

    Illness and death

    Schwartz was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia in December 2008, during her junior year at Yale.[1] She had been sick for much of the fall semester, but attributed it to stress and an initial diagnosis of anemia. She was diagnosed on December 8, 2008.[2] She started treatment for her cancer in December 2008 and was able to briefly return to school and began practicing with the hockey team again in January 2010. In April 2010, she received word that her cancer had returned and was forced to leave school.[2]
    Doctors had decided that Schwartz’s best option for treatment would be either a cord blood or bone marrow transplant. In the hopes of finding a match, bone marrow drives were organized at Yale University and at several locations throughout Canada. Drives held at Yale resulted in more than 1,600 people volunteering as potential donors.[3] Bone marrow drives did not result in a match for Schwartz, but doctors found a suitable donor from umbilical cord blood. In September 2010, Schwartz underwent the transplant in Seattle.[4] Her cancer went into remission after the transplant, but returned again in December 2010. Shortly after this, Schwartz decided to discontinue most forms of treatment.[4] Rather than hoping for a cure, Schwartz continued with palliative chemotherapy designed to minimize her symptoms.[5] On April 2, 2011, she entered a Regina hospital and died the following day.[1][2][4]

    Personal life

    Schwartz was the daughter of Rick and Carol Schwartz. Her brothers, Jaden and Rylan, both play for the Colorado College men’s ice hockey team. Jaden was a first round draft pick of the St. Louis Blues in the 2010 NHL Entry Draft.[4] She was engaged to Kaylem Prefontaine, whom she had met in high school. They had planned to marry in 2012.[6]

    Legacy

    Yale University has made bone marrow drives an annual event on campus. The first two drives signed up over 1,600 potential donors. The 2011 drive was held in April, shortly after Schwartz’s death. Shortly after the event, it was announced that the drive had unofficially signed up another 869 potential donors.[7] Although the school’s drives did not find a match for Schwartz, they have generated six other matches for patients who required a bone marrow transplant.[8] The success of Yale’s bone marrow drives is statistically unlikely, according to Sam Rubin who works in Yale’s sports publicity department. Rubin stated, “Usually, it takes tens of thousands of people to get one match. It’s like looking for a needle in a haystack.”[6]

     

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    Gustavo Sondermann, Brazilian racing driver, died from a race crash he was , 29.

     Gustavo Sondermann was a Brazilian racing driver died from a race crash he was , 29..

    (February 17, 1982 – April 3, 2011)

    Career

    Sondermann began racing karts at the age of sixteen and soon moved up to the Brazilian Formula Renault championship for 2002, in which he competed for two years with mixed results. In 2004 he moved to Europe to compete in the equivalent British series, and also made a guest appearance in the Formula Renault Eurocup the following year, but subsequently returned to Brazil in 2006 to compete in the national stock car championship.
    He competed in the second tier of the series, known variously as Stock Car Light, Stock Car Copa Vicar and latterly as the Copa Chevrolet Montana from 2006 until 2011, winning four races in total and with a best finish of third place in the championship in 2007, a year soured by the death of his team-mate, Rafael Sperafico, in the season finale. In 2010, he competed in seven races of the premier Stock Car Brasil division, scoring six points and finishing in 31st place in the championship. He also competed in the third-tier Mini Challenge series, the GT4 Brasil Championship and the Pick Up Racing Brasil series, winning the last of these in 2008.

    Death

    During the first race of the 2011 Copa Chevrolet Montana season, held in heavy rain at the Autódromo José Carlos Pace, Sondermann was hit by several cars and ultimately by Pedro Boesel at the fast Curva do Café before the start-finish straight. He was extricated from his car and transferred to hospital in a coma after having had cardiac arrest, where he later was diagnosed braindead. His organs were donated.

    References

     

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