Did you know that Le Gros was born August 31, 1931 and his family turned down an offer of a minor-league pro contract for Jean at age fifteen?
Did you know that during his 18 full seasons in Montreal, he played on 10 Stanley Cup winning teams 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1965, 1966, 1968, 1969,
Did you know that Béliveau retired at the end of the 1970–71 NHL season
as his team’s all-time leader in points, second all-time in goals and
the NHL’s all-time leading playoff scorer?
Did you know that Le Gros Bill scored 507 goals and had
712 assists for 1,219 points in 1,125 NHL regular-season games plus 79
goals and 97 assists for 176 points in 162 playoff games?
Did you know that his jersey
number (#4) was retired on October 9, 1971?
Did you know that in 1972, he was inducted
into the Hockey Hall of Fame?
Did you know that he is now the second all-time leading scorer in Canadiens history, behind Guy Lafleur. Only Henri Richard (1256 games) and Larry Robinson (1202 games) played more games for the Habs?
Now if you didn’t know, now you know…
To see more did you know that trivia click here
Who is Brad Douglas Paisley? The entertainment and Country Music World knows him as Brad Paisley as an American singer-songwriter and musician. His style crosses between traditional country music and Southern rock, and his songs are frequently laced with humor and pop culture references.
Paisley was the 2008 CMA and ACM Male Vocalist of the Year winner. Starting with the release of his 1999 album Who Needs Pictures, Paisley has recorded seven studio albums and a Christmas compilation on the Arista Nashville label, with all of his albums certified gold or higher by the RIAA. In addition, he has charted 25 singles on the U.S. Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, 16 of which have reached #1 with a record 10 consecutive singles reaching the top spot on the chart. On November 10, 2010, Paisley won the Entertainer of the Year award at the 44th annual CMA Awards.
Paisley was born on October 28, 1972 in Glen Dale, West Virginia to Douglas Edward “Doug” Paisley, who worked for the West Virginia Department of Transportation, and Sandra Jean “Sandy” (née Jarvis) Paisley, a teacher. He was raised in Glen Dale, West Virginia.
He has stated that his love of country music stems from his maternal
grandfather, Warren Jarvis, who gave Paisley his first guitar, a Sears Danelectro Silvertone
at 8-years-old and taught him how to play. At age 10, he performed for
the first time in public by singing in his church. He later recalled
that, “Pretty soon, I was performing at every Christmas party and
Mother’s Day event. The neat thing about a small town is that when you
want to be an artist, by golly, they’ll make you one”. At age 12, Paisley wrote his first song, entitled, “Born on Christmas Day”. He had been taking lessons with local guitarist Clarence “Hank” Goddard.
By age 13, Goddard and Paisley formed a band called “Brad Paisley and
the C-Notes”, with the addition of two of Paisley’s adult friends.
While in junior high, his principal heard him perform “Born On Christmas Day” and invited him to play at the local Rotary Club meeting. In attendance was Tom Miller, the program director of a radio station in Wheeling, West Virginia. Miller asked him if he would like to be a guest on Jamboree USA.
After his first performance, he was asked to become a member of the
show’s weekly lineup. For the next eight years, he opened for country
singers such as The Judds, Ricky Skaggs and George Jones. He would become the youngest person inducted into the Jamboree USA Hall of Fame. He also performed at the Jamboree in the Hills.
Paisley graduated from John Marshall High School in Glen Dale, West Virginia in 1991, studied for 2 years at West Liberty College (WV) and later was awarded a full-paid ASCAP scholarship to Belmont University, in Nashville, Tennessee (from 1993 to 1995). He interned at ASCAP, Atlantic Records, and the Fitzgerald-Hartley management firm. While in college, he met Frank Rogers,
a fellow student who went on to serve as his producer. Paisley also met
Kelley Lovelace, who became his songwriting partner. He also met Chris
DuBois in college, and he too would write songs for him.
After graduating from Belmont with a Bachelor’s degree in music business, within a week Paisley signed a songwriting contract with EMI Music Publishing; and, he wrote David Kersh‘s “Top 5″ hit, “Another You“, as well as David Ball‘s 1999 single, “Watching My Baby Not Come Back.” The latter song was also co-written by Ball.
1999–2001: Who Needs Pictures
His debut as a singer was with the label Arista Nashville, with the song “Who Needs Pictures” (released February 22, 1999). In May of that same year, he made his first appearance on the Grand Ole Opry. Seven months later he had his first #1 hit with “He Didn’t Have to Be,” which detailed the story of Paisley’s frequent co-writer Kelley Lovelace and Lovelace’s stepson, McCain Merren.
also was a hit for Paisley off the debut album, reaching #1 on the U.S.
Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks chart. By February 2001, the
album was certified platinum.
In 2000, Paisley’s mainstream notoriety received a huge boost when he
was exposed to his first national non-country music oriented audience
on the TLC special, “Route 66: Main Street America.” Producer, Todd Baker,
tapped the young musician to appear on this show when he was a relative
unknown outside the world of country music. It featured Paisley and
band doing rare live and acoustic versions of Route 66.
The international and home video versions of this program end with a
full, un-cut acoustic rendition of the piece, which was performed live
on Rainbow Bridge in Riverton, Kansas. The show accurately predicted that Paisley would become a legendary musician, and also featured blues artist, Buddy Guy.
Later in 2000, Paisley won the Country Music Association‘s (CMA) Horizon Award and the Academy of Country Music’s best new male vocalist trophy. He received his first Grammy Award nomination a year later for Best New Artist. On February 17, 2001, Paisley was inducted into the Grand Ole Opry He was 28 when he accepted the invitation, and was the youngest member ever to join. PBS did a 75th anniversary concert special, which saw Paisley pair up with Chely Wright and sing a song called Hard to Be a Husband, Hard to Be a Wife, and would be included on the album Backstage at the Opry, It would get a CMA nomination for Vocal Event of the Year.
2001–2003: Part II
In 2002, he won the CMA Music Video of the Year for “I’m Gonna Miss Her (The Fishin’ Song).”
Several celebrities made notable guest appearances in the video, including Little Jimmy Dickens, Kimberly Williams, Dan Patrick, and Jerry Springer. His three other singles off the Part II album, “I Wish You’d Stay“, “Wrapped Around“, and “Two People Fell in Love“,
all charted in the top 10. The album stayed in the charts for more than
70 weeks and was certified platinum in August 2002. To support his
album, he toured the country as the opening act for Lonestar.
2003–2005: Mud on the Tires
Paisley released his third album, Mud on the Tires (2003), following Who Needs Pictures and Part II. The album features the hit song “Celebrity“, the video of which parodies reality shows such as Fear Factor, American Idol, The Bachelorette and According to Jim, and included such celebrities as Jason Alexander, James Belushi, Little Jimmy Dickens, Trista Rehn and William Shatner. (Paisley later contributed to Shatner’s album Has Been.) The album’s title track, “Mud on the Tires“, reached Billboard #1 in 2004.
In addition, the ninth track from Mud on the Tires, “Whiskey Lullaby“, a duet with Alison Krauss
reached #3 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks (now Hot
Country Songs) charts, and #41 on the Billboard Hot 100. The music video
for Whiskey Lullaby also won several awards and was rated #2 on the 100 Greatest Music Videos by CMT in 2008. The album would be certified double platinum.
2005–2007: Time Well Wasted
In 2005, after touring with Reba McEntire and Terri Clark on the “Two Hats and a Redhead Tour,” he released Time Well Wasted, containing 15 tracks. This album includes “Alcohol,” two duets — “When I Get Where I’m Going” with Dolly Parton and “Out in the Parking Lot” with Alan Jackson — and a bonus track, “Cornography.” On November 6, 2006, the album “Time Well Wasted” won the Country Music Association CMA Award for Best Album. “Time Well Wasted” also won album of the year at the 2006 ACM Awards.
Paisley also contributed two original songs to the Disney film Cars. These can be found on the film’s soundtrack. This was in recognition of his contribution to the “Route 66: Main Street America” television special.
At the 2006 Grammy Awards, Paisley received four nominations: Best Country Album (for Time Well Wasted), Best Country Song (for “Alcohol”), Best Country Instrumental (for “Time Warp”) and Best Country Vocal, Male (for “Alcohol”).
2007–2008: 5th Gear
Paisley’s fifth studio album, 5th Gear, was released in the United States on June 19, 2007. The first four singles from the album, “Ticks“, “Online“, “Letter to Me“, and “I’m Still a Guy“, all reached number one on the country music single charts, making seven straight number one hits for Paisley.” “Online“
featured the Brentwood High School marching band playing toward the end
of the song, a cameo by Jason Alexander, and again featured a cameo by
William Shatner. Throttleneck would also reach number one, which would get Paisley his first Grammy.
The fifth single from 5th Gear actually came from a reissued version of the album – a new recording of “Waitin’ on a Woman“, a track cut from Time Well Wasted.
The reissued version received unsolicited airplay in late 2006, and
features less prominent string guitar and violin parts and a more
“muted” musical tone. For the chart week of September 20, 2008, the song
became Paisley’s twelfth number-one single and his eighth straight
number-one hit, making him the artist with the most consecutive Number
One country hits since the inception of Nielsen SoundScan in 1990.
In July 2006, producer Todd Baker tapped Brad for a television appearance as an animated character in The Wonder Pets, Daddy Armadillo. The yet-to-be-broadcast episode features Brad’s wife, Kimberly Williams, as Mama Armadillo.
Paisley toured April 26, 2007 through February 24, 2008 in support of 5th Gear
on the Bonfires & Amplifiers Tour. The tour visited 94 cities over a
10 month period and played for over 1,000,000 fans. The tour was so
successful that it was extended past its original end date to February
2008. Some of the opening acts who appeared during the tour were Taylor Swift, Kellie Pickler, Jack Ingram, Rodney Atkins and Chuck Wicks.
Paisley was nominated for three 2008 Grammy Awards related to 5th Gear: Best Country Album (for 5th Gear), Best Country Collaboration (for “Oh Love” with Carrie Underwood), and Best Country Instrumental (for “Throttleneck”). On February 10, 2008, he won his first Grammy award for Best Country Instrumental for “Throttleneck”.
In March 2008, Brad Paisley announced his next tour, “The Paisley
Party,” a 42-date tour sponsored by Hershey’s. The tour kicked off on
June 11, 2008, in Albuquerque, New Mexico with Chuck Wicks, Julianne Hough and Jewel as the opening acts.
A sixth, largely instrumental album, titled Play, was released on November 4, 2008. Brad Paisley and Keith Urban released to country radio their first duet together on September 8, 2008, “Start a Band.” It was the first and only single from Play,
and it went on to become Paisley’s thirteenth number one hit and his
ninth in a row.
The album also features collaborations with James Burton, Little Jimmy Dickens, Vince Gill, John Jorgenson, B.B. King, Albert Lee, Brent Mason, Buck Owens, Redd Volkaert and Steve Wariner.
Paisley and Urban both received Entertainer of the Year nominations
from the CMA on September 10, 2008. On November 12, 2008 Brad Paisley
won Male Vocalist of the Year and Music Video of the Year for “Waitin’
on a Woman” during the CMA’s.
2009–2010: American Saturday Night
Brad Paisley announced on January 26, 2009 his new tour named “American Saturday Night.” Dierks Bentley and Jimmy Wayne will be opening in the majority of the shows. Brad Paisley’s newest album, American Saturday Night was released on June 30, 2009. The album’s lead off single, “Then” was released in March 2009 and performed for the first time on American Idol on March 18. It went on to become Paisley’s 14th number one single and his tenth in a row.
On May 6, 2009, Paisley gave an exclusive performance to a small group of members from his fan club in Studio A of the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville, TN as he and his band taped an episode of CMT Invitation Only.
The show gives fans a chance to see their favorite artists in a more
intimate setting up close and personal. There was a Q & A session
and interaction between Paisley and his fans. The show aired on Monday,
August 3 at 9:00 p.m. on CMT.
On July 21, 2009, Paisley performed at the White House
in celebration of country music. “Country Music at the White House “
was streamed live on the White House web-site as well as a special on
Great American Country.
On November 11, 2009, Paisley co-hosted the CMA Awards for the second straight year. He also performed “Welcome to the Future“, and won both Male Vocalist of the Year and Musical Event of the Year for Start a Band with Keith Urban.
On March 1, 2010, Paisley was the first musical performance with
“American Saturday Night” for the second tenure of the Tonight Show with
On Friday March 5, 2010, Paisley slipped and fell performing his last song of the set, “Alcohol,” at a concert at the North Charleston Coliseum in Charleston, South Carolina, on the final date of the American Saturday Night Tour. Fearing a broken rib, he was held overnight at an area hospital, but was released when a CT scan was negative.
On July 31, 2010 Brad performed alongside Carrie Underwood at the inaugural Greenbrier Classic
PGA Tour Event in Lewisburg, W.Va. An estimated 60,000 people attended
the outdoor event to watch Carrie and Brad perform in the pouring rain.
On August 4, 2010, it was announced on his official website that
Paisley would release his first official greatest hits package, entitled
Hits Alive. Released on November 2, 2010, Hits Alive
is a double-disc collection, with one disc containing studio versions
of Paisley’s hit singles, while the companion disc features previously
unreleased live versions of his songs.
Brad Paisley cohosted the 44th Annual CMA Awards on November 10,
2010, where he was also awarded the CMA’s top award, Entertainer of the
Year. During his acceptance speech, Paisley emotionally honored his grandfather, who inspired him to play the guitar.
In 2012, MSN.com listed American Saturday Night as one of the 21 Essential 21st-Century Albums.
2011-present: This Is Country Music
In December 2010, Paisley released “This Is Country Music” as the title track to his eighth studio album, released May 23, 2011. The album’s second single, “Old Alabama” (with Alabama), released to country radio on March 14, 2011 and became Paisley’s nineteenth number one hit. “Remind Me,” with Carrie Underwood, was released May 23, 2011 to radio.
On March 22, 2011, Paisley’s website announced a new beta game titled “Brad Paisley World.” The game is modeled after other Facebook games such as Farmville or Mafia Wars
and features original animation. The game provides a new way for fans
to interact with each other and view exclusive material that would
otherwise be unavailable.
On May 12, 2011, Paisley’s website announced that he would release two songs on the soundtrack for the film Cars 2. One of them would be a collaboration with British pop singer Robbie Williams.
On October 19, 2011, Paisley made a voice cameo as various background characters in the South Park episode “Bass to Mouth“. 
On January 14, 2012, Paisley was a guest on Garrison Keillor‘s Prairie Home Companion, during which he did a rendition of “Life’s Railway to Heaven” by Charles Davis Tillman.
Brad also tweeted that he has started recording his upcoming album.
On April 25, 2012, Paisley was featured on the South Park episode “Cartman Finds Love“, in which he voiced himself, sang “The National Anthem“, and helped Cartman sing the 90’s hit song “I Swear“, which was popularized in 1994 by the country musician John Michael Montgomery and the pop group All-4-One. 
Paisley extended his “Virtual Realty” tour throughout the summer of
2012. He will be touring the country and making pit stops at local
country music festivals. The goal of these outdoor concerts is to give
the audience the full experience of Brad Paisley’s music, as many of his
songs contain outdoor elements. 
- Brooks & Dunn’s Neon Circus & Wild West Show 2003
- Mud & Suds Tour 2004 (w/ Sara Evans, Andy Griggs)
- Two Hats & A Redhead Tour 2005 (w/ Reba McEntire, Terri Clark)
- Time Well Wasted Tour 2006 (w/ Sara Evans, Sugarland, Carrie Underwood, Jake Owen, Josh Turner, Billy Currington)
- Bonfires & Amplifiers Tour 2007–2008 (w/ Taylor Swift, Jack Ingram, Kellie Pickler, Rodney Atkins, Chuck Wicks)
- The Paisley Party Tour 2008 (w/ Chuck Wicks, Julianne Hough, Jewel)
- The Paisley Party Tour 2009 (w/ Dierks Bentley, Darius Rucker, Crystal Shawanda)
- American Saturday Night Tour 2009 (w/ Dierks Bentley, Jimmy Wayne)
- American Saturday Night Tour 2010 (w/ Miranda Lambert, Justin Moore)
- The H2O Tour 2010 (w/ Darius Rucker, Justin Moore)
- The H2O Frozen Over Tour 2011 (w/ Darius Rucker, Jerrod Niemann)
- H2O II: Wetter and Wilder World Tour (w/ Darius Rucker, Blake Shelton, Jerrod Niemann)
|The Drama Kings taking a picture with a fan|
Paisley records his studio albums, in most part, with the backing of
his live band, The Drama Kings. Their first gig together was May 7,
1999. The only changes have been Randel Currie’s addition on the steel
guitar in 2000 and Jimmy Heffernan’s departure in 2001. Also, Jody
Harris worked as Paisley’s guitar tech until officially becoming a
bandmember for the American Saturday Night Tour. As of 2010, the lineup
- Brad Paisley – lead vocals, lead guitar
- Gary Hooker – rhythm guitar
- Randle Currie – steel guitar
- Kendal Marcy – keyboards, banjo, mandolin
- Justin Williamson – fiddle, mandolin
- Kenny Lewis – bass guitar
- Ben Sesar – drums
|Paisley and Chely Wright|
In the last months of 2000, Paisley had a relationship with fellow country music singer Chely Wright,
even though Wright and her female lover had moved together into a new
home earlier in the year. Wright was touring together with Paisley, with
whom she had co-written one song the previous year, and he had been
enamored of her ever since. Although she felt no sexual attraction to
Paisley, as to all men,
she recounts why Paisley was the man she decided to have a relationship
with, “he’s wickedly smart, which is one of the reasons why I made the
decision to spend time with him. I loved Brad. I never had the capacity
to fall in love with him, but I figured if I’m gonna live a less than
satisfied life, this is the guy I could live my life with. If I’m gonna
be with a boy, this is the boy.”
Her actions were further fueled by the fact that she held him in high
esteem and great affection in every way other than sexual attraction. In her autobiography she expresses remorse for how she treated him.
|Paisley and Kimberly Williams|
Paisley and Kimberly Williams began dating in 2001. Paisley had first seen Kimberly Williams in Father of the Bride with a former girlfriend. Brad and his former girlfriend broke up prior to the release of Father of the Bride Part II, which Brad went to see alone. Brad has stated that he watched Kimberly Williams‘ performance and thought “She seems like a great girl — smart and funny and all those things that are so hard to find.” In 2002, Williams appeared in a video for the song “I’m Gonna Miss Her (The Fishin’ Song),” the last release from his Part II album. The two married on March 15, 2003, at Stauffer Chapel on the campus of Pepperdine University after a nine month engagement. They live in Franklin, Tennessee, and have another home in Malibu.
Paisley and Williams first son, William Huckleberry, or “Huck”, was born on February 22, 2007, in Nashville, Tennessee. Their second son, Jasper Warren (named after his grandfather who bought Brad his first guitar), was born on April 17, 2009.
Paisley is a member of the Southern Jurisdiction of the Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, and a Noble of the AAONMS, also known as Shriners. He was accompanied by his father, Doug Paisley (32º), for the ceremony on October 28, 2006.
He is also a lifelong fan of the Cleveland Browns. Paisley sang the national anthem before a game during the 1999 season, and stated in an interview, with ESPN his dream job would be to play football for them. He also invited former Browns Quarterback Brady Quinn to a concert at the Blossom Music Center, in 2008.
Paisley is also a fan of West Virginia University athletics and the Boston Red Sox.
In late 2009, it was announced in Variety that Paisley would enter the world of scripted television as an executive producer of a new hour-long drama series for The CW network called, appropriately, Nashville. The plot was written and created by Neal Dodson and actor Matt Bomer. The creator of the series One Tree Hill, Mark Schwahn will direct the pilot and oversee the series. Actor Zachary Quinto is also an executive producer on the series, along with Dodson, Bomer, and Corey Moosa. The pilot was not picked up for a series when The CW’s fall schedule was announced in May 2010.
Paisley’s first guitar, a gift from his grandfather, was a Silvertone Danelectro 1451, which came with a “amp-in-case”. His next guitar, which he got at the age of 10 or 11, also from his grandfather, was a Sekova copy of a Gibson ES-335, with a Fender Deluxe Reverb. The instrument most often associated with him is a 1968 Pink Paisley Fender Telecaster.
Like many Nashville-based musicians, he lost a number of instruments and other gear in the 2010 flood in Nashville, including a 1970s Gibson Les Paul
and the prototype for a Z Wreck, one of the signature Paisley Dr. Z
amplifiers. The insurance money, however, allowed him to buy (from George Gruhn‘s store) an exclusive 1937 herringbone Martin D-28.
In 2010, Brad Paisley and Wampler Pedals released the Brad Paisley
signature Paisley Drive, a guitar overdrive pedal designed to the
specifications of Brad Paisley. Paisley has also used Audiotech Guitar Products ABY Selector’s for controlling his wireless receiver units. 
- Studio Albums
- 1999: Who Needs Pictures
- 2001: Part II
- 2003: Mud on the Tires
- 2005: Time Well Wasted
- 2006: Brad Paisley Christmas
- 2007: 5th Gear
- 2008: Play
- 2009: American Saturday Night
- 2011: This Is Country Music
- 2010: Hits Alive
- Academy of Country Music
- 1999 – Top New Male Vocalist of the Year
- 2004 – Vocal Event of the Year (“Whiskey Lullaby”)
- 2004 – Video of the Year (“Whiskey Lullaby”)
- 2005 – Album of the Year (“Time Well Wasted”)
- 2005 – Vocal Event of the Year (“When I Get Where I’m Going”)
- 2005 – Video of the Year (“When I Get Where I’m Going”)
- 2007 – Top Male Vocalist of the Year
- 2008 – Top Male Vocalist of the Year
- 2008 – Video of the Year (“Online”)
- 2009 – Video of the Year (“Waitin’ on a Woman”)
- 2009 – Vocal Event of the Year (“Start a Band”)
- 2009 – Top Male Vocalist of the Year
- 2010 – Top Male Vocalist of the Year
- 2011 – Top Male Vocalist of the Year
- Country Music Association Awards
- 2000 – Horizon Award
- 2001 – Vocal Event of the Year (“Too Country”)
- 2002 – Music Video of the Year (“I’m Gonna Miss Her”)
- 2004 – Musical Event of the Year (“Whiskey Lullaby”)
- 2004 – Music Video of the Year (“Whiskey Lullaby”)
- 2006 – Album of the Year (Time Well Wasted)
- 2006 – Musical Event of the Year (“When I Get Where I’m Going”)
- 2007 – Music Video of the Year (“Online” – director Jason Alexander)
- 2007 – Male Vocalist of the Year
- 2008 – Music Video of the Year (“Waitin’ on a Woman”)
- 2008 – Male Vocalist of the Year
- 2009 – Male Vocalist of the Year
- 2009 – Musical Event of the Year (“Start A Band” with Keith Urban)
- 2010 – Entertainer of the Year
- Grammy Awards
- 2008 – Best Country Instrumental Performance (“Throttleneck”)
- 2009 – Best Country Instrumental Performance (“Cluster Pluck”)
- 2009 – Best Male Country Vocal Performance (“Letter to Me”)
- Country Weekly Presents the TNN Music Awards
- 2000 – The Discovery Award
- 2000 – Song of the Year (“He Didn’t Have to Be”)
- 2000 – CMT Music Video of the Year (“He Didn’t Have to Be”)
- Flameworthy Awards/CMT Music Awards
- 2002 – Concept Video of the Year (“I’m Gonna Miss Her”)
- 2005 – Collaborative Video of the Year (“Whiskey Lullaby”)
- 2006 – Most Inspiring Video of the Year (“When I Get Where I’m Going”)
- 2008 – Comedy Video of the Year (“Online”)
- 2009 – CMT Performance of the Year (“Country Boy”)
- 2009 – Collaborative Video of the Year (“Start a Band”)
- 2009 – Male Video of the Year (“Waitin’ On a Woman”)
- 2012 – Collaborative Video of the Year (“Remind Me”)
- American Music Awards
- 2008 – Favorite Country Male Artist
- 2010 – Favorite Country Male Artist
- American Country Awards
- 2010 – Artist of the Year – Male
- 2011 – Artist of the Year – Male
- Orville H. Gibson Guitar Award
- 2002 – Best Country Guitarist (Male)
- Nashville Songwriters Association International Award
- 2002 – Songwriter/Artist of the Year
- 2005 – Songwriter/Artist of the Year
- ASCAP Country Music Award
- 2004 – Songwriter/Artist of the Year
To see more of Who Is click here
Lalla Aicha, Moroccan princess, first female Arab ambassador, Ambassador to United Kingdom (1965–1969); Greece (1969–1970); Italy (1970–1973), died she was 81.
(17 June 1930 – 4 September 2011)
Life and career
Born in Rabat, she was privately educated in Rabat and awarded a Baccalauréat degree. The exile in 1953 of Mohammed V and his family on Corsica interrupted her studies in languages. Lalla Aicha was the Ambassador of Morocco to the United Kingdom between 1965 and 1969, and then to Greece from 1969 to 1970, and to Italy between 1970 and 1973. She was the first president of the Entraide Nationale, president of the Moroccan Red Crescent Society from the 1950s to 1969,  and honorary president of the National Union of Moroccan Women since 1969 until her death.
She married firstly on 16 August 1961, at the Dar al-Makhzin in
Rabat, Moulay Hassan al-Yaqubi (born 1934) and divorced in 1972.
Together they had two daughters:
- Lalla Zubaida al-Yaqubi (also named Zoubida El Yacoubi), Vice-Consul at New York 1985
- Lalla Nufissa al-Yaqubi (also named Noufissa El Yacoubi), Vice-Consul at New York 1986
Titles, styles and honours
Titles and atyles
She received several honours during her life:
- Grand Cordon of the Order of the Throne of Morocco (1963)
- Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy (1970)
- Honorary Dame Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (DCVO, 1980)
Honorary military appointments
To see more of who died in 2011 click here
Victor Bussie, American labor activist, president of Louisiana AFL–CIO, died from stomach cancer he was 92.
Victor V. Bussie was until his retirement in 1997 the 41-year unopposed president of the Louisiana AFL-CIO,
having first assumed the mantle of union leadership in 1956 died from stomach cancer he was 92..
Journalists often described him as the most significant non-elected
“official” in his state’s politics. Bussie’s influence with governors
and state legislators became so great in the 1970s that a trade association known as the Louisiana Association of Business and Industry
(LABI) was established as a counterbalance to the AFL-CIO. LABI won a
huge victory in 1976 with the passage of the state’s still-standing right-to-work legislation.
( January 27, 1919 – September 4, 2011)
Defender of the Longs
Bussie recalled having been born in poverty in the community of Montrose in Natchitoches Parish to Christopher “Chris” Bussie and the former Fannie LaCaze. The senior Bussie was a unionized employee of the Texas Pacific Railroad. Bussie had a brother and five sisters, one of whom, Authree B. Gorrell of Austin, Texas, was still living as of 2011. At some point, the Bussies headed south to Rapides Parish because another sister, Fannie Mae Bussie Heard (1924–2009) of Shreveport, was born in Boyce. Fannie Heard was one of the first female Certified Public Accountants in northwestern Louisiana, having also been licensed to practice in California and Nevada. Bussie, who was half Choctaw Indian, commented on his background, as follows:
- My mother and father struggled to send us to school because of the
high cost of school books. There finally came a time when they could no
longer afford to buy books for seven children. We children were told
that we could no longer attend school.
- That very same year, Governor Huey Pierce Long, Jr., persuaded the Louisiana State Legislature to fund schoolbooks for all children attending public schools.
Not only did that mean that my brother and sisters and I could finish
our education but also thousands of other children could as well. My
family never forgot Huey Long and became longtime political supporters
of the Long family.
In 1959, as AFL-CIO president, Bussie checked himself into a mental health facility in Galveston, Texas, as a ruse for the confinement of Governor Earl Kemp Long, who was committed by his wife, Blanche Revere Long and Long’s nephew, U.S. Senator Russell B. Long.
“It’s hard to believe that I was involved in it. It was a mess. He
(Long) could have easily sued me, but that never occurred to me. He was a
friend, and I just tried to help as best I could.”
Bussie in Shreveport
Bussie, a veteran of the United States Navy during World War II, joined the Shreveport
Fire Department and became a leader in the departmental union. He
became chief of the Fire Prevention Bureau and the president of the
Central Trades and Labor Council. James C. Gardner, who served as mayor
of Shreveport from 1954 to 1958, described Bussie as “well-spoken” and
his “polite and reasonable manner made him widely sought as the ‘labor
member’ of various civic boards.” As a second assistant chief, a
position Bussie obtained without waiting for civil service seniority,
his signature was required on all certificates of occupancy for
commercial buildings, a position of considerable power.
Some in the business community accused Bussie of requiring work beyond
the municipal building or fire code regulations in order to create more
employment within the building trades. To check Bussie, officials
activated, as permitted by the city charter, a building code board of
appeals to prevent abuses.
Early in 1955, Bussie, acting through the Central Trades and Labor
Council during his lunch hour, called a strike of waitresses at
Brocato’s Restaurant in Shreveport when the company declined to rehire a
fired waitress. In retaliation, Shreveport Public Safety Commissioner
J. Earl Downs, the brother of an influential state senator allied with the Longs, Crawford H. “Sammy” Downs of Alexandria, the seat of Rapides Parish,
demoted Bussie to the rank of captain and assigned him to a fire
station. Bussie instead took unpaid leave and appealed Downs’ decision
to the Fire and Police Civil Service Board. After fourteen sessions and
fifty hours of testimony, the civil service board voted 4–1 to uphold
the demotion, with the lone dissenter being the firefighters’
representative. Bussie announced that he would appeal to the courts.
Meanwhile, he became the state AFL-CIO president for the remainder of
his working career and lived in Baton Rouge. No action was ever taken by
the courts in Bussie’s appeal.
Gardner said that the demotion “turned out to be the best thing that
could have happened to Bussie and the labor movement in Louisiana… He
was extremely effective as the Louisiana leader of organized labor and
brought a level of influence for labor in Baton Rouge that it had not
Bussie’s home bombed
On July 19, 1966, Bussie’s Baton Rouge residence in the Kenilworth
subdivision was bombed, but there were no injuries. Jules R. Kimble, a
then 24-year-old proclaimed former member of the Ku Klux Klan,
who also claimed to have been the heir to a nonexistent fortune, told
police that he had overheard three Klansmen plot the bombing of both the
Bussie residence and that of Viola Logan, an African American teacher in Port Allen, the seat of West Baton Rouge Parish. Kimble said the plot was hatched in Kimble’s New Orleans
home but that he declined to participate in the execution of the plans.
It was theorized that the bombing was inspired by Klansmen who favored a
state grant-in-aid program to benefit white private academies which
would soon mushroom in predominantly black sections of Louisiana with
the arrival of court-mandated school desegregation. Kimble was eventually booked with aggravated assault, impersonating a police officer, and carrying a concealed weapon.
Service on boards and commissions
As he had served on Shreveport boards, Bussie also was the union
representative over the years on many state boards and commissions,
including the Louisiana State University Board of Supervisors, and was the chairman of the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority. On his retirement, a Baton Rouge Morning Advocate editorial concluded, “Bussie might well be the most powerful Louisianan never elected to public office.”
Bussie, ever with an eye toward friendly relations with the media, once invited the Morning Advocate managing editor, Margaret Dixon, to address the AFL-CIO convention. He also maintained a highly visible public image for himself.
He served two four-year terms on the Democratic National Committee. President John F. Kennedy asked Bussie to pressure Senator Russell Long, whom Bussie had known since boyhood, to push Medicare through a Senate committee that Long chaired. However, Medicare was not enacted until Lyndon B. Johnson succeeded Kennedy as President.
At the time of his death, Bussie was still a member of the Baton Rouge Municipal Fire and Police Civil Service Board.
Bussie sues Margaret Lowenthal and Boeing
On October 15, 1985, State Representative Margaret Welsh Lowenthal, an unsuccessful Democratic candidate for Louisiana’s 7th congressional district seat in the United States House of Representatives, addressed the Lake Charles Optimist Club at its regular luncheon meeting. Lowenthal claimed that she had been told by an unidentified representative of Boeing that the firm had considered locating a manufacturing facility in Louisiana, but ultimately chose Mississippi
because of Louisiana’s unstable political climate and its longstanding
problems with public education. Lowenthal said that she was told further
by the Boeing representative that, “‘As long as you have a man named
Victor Bussie sitting in Baton Rouge, calling the shots for labor, we
don’t need to be in your state.'” Her remarks were telecast over Lake
Bussie filed suit against Lowenthal and Boeing alleging that the
statements were false and were made with actual malice. Bussie alleged
that as such the statements damaged his reputation and held him up to
public contempt and ridicule and caused him embarrassment, humiliation,
mental suffering, and anxiety. Lowenthal claimed that the statements had
been made to her while she was attending a cocktail party given by the
Louisiana delegation to the National Conference of State Legislators.
Bussie fights right-to-work
The Louisiana State Legislature passed a right-to-work law in the 1952 session at the urging of then Governor Robert F. Kennon.
Gardner was a freshman member of the Louisiana House at the time and
voted for right-to-work. In 1956, however, when Gardner was mayor, the
legislature repealed the law at the urging of Governor Earl Long.
Organized labor took the leading role in the repeal, a reflection of
Bussie’s growing influence in state politics. Indeed, Louisiana was
clearly the most unionized state in the American South.
Bussie found that rural state legislators wanted farmers excluded from
the repeal of right-to-work. Therefore, he endorsed one bill to repeal
right-to-work and another to restore right-to-work for farmers. “We
became the first and only state labor organization in the nation ever to
sponsor a right-to-work law,” Bussie said. The maneuvering caught the eye of former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt,
who penned an editorial saying that Bussie should be expelled from the
union for sponsoring the restoration of right-to-work for farmers.
In the 1976 legislative session, right-to-work was again passed by a
nearly all Democratic body, a reflection of the growing presence of
LABI, which sought to reverse what it claimed had been “socialism” in the heyday of Bussie’s influence.
Bussie has since never wavered in his call to repeal the Louisiana
right-to-work law, which he calls the “right-to-work-for-less.”
Supporters of the measure, however, insist that it merely protects
employees’ freedom to refuse to pay compulsory “fees” to a union which
they do not wish to join. Twenty-one other states, including all
southern states, have such laws.
Bussie claims that the effect of the law has been “to drive down
wages, … particularly in the construction industry.” Data furnished by
the U.S. Department of Labor
and the Louisiana Department of Labor show that construction wages in
the state have sharply increased relative to the national average since
passage of right-to-work. In 1976, Louisiana construction hourly wages
were 77 percent of the national average. By 2000, Louisiana construction
wages had risen to 96 percent of the U.S. average.
Mark Mix, senior vice president of the National Right to Work Committee in Springfield, Virginia,
noted that the same trend is evident in manufacturing. U.S. Department
of Labor data show that Louisiana manufacturing hourly wages has risen
from 102 percent of the national average in 1976 to 108 percent in the
21st century. Because the cost of living in Louisiana has been
traditionally lower than in other states, construction workers’ real,
disposable income is above the national average.
Bussie said the decline of labor unions in Louisiana began in 1976,
when the state Legislature narrowly approved right-to-work legislation
that was pushed by Ed Steimel, founding president of the Louisiana
Association of Business and Industry. Bussie once called right-to-work
“the most misnamed, deceitful, misleading piece of legislation ever
introduced.” Bussie and unions argued that right-to-work was meant to
weaken unions so businesses could lower wages. Right-to-work proponents
said the legislation was needed to keep unions from forcing employees to
join and pay dues. The fight culminated with the 1976 passage of the
legislation when nearly 15,000 union members protested outside the State
“That is when wages started going down in Louisiana,” Bussie said.
“It was tough, very disappointing.” Bussie said that prior to
right-to-work, Louisiana had among the most skilled workers in the
nation. Businesses liked the skill of workers, except for those
companies that were just adamantly anti-union, he said.
“It was one of the biggest fights in the Legislature of this past
century,” Steimel said. He still feels the legislation was needed then.
But he said that corporations in Louisiana today are inadvertently
inviting the return of stronger unions because workers get paid more in
other states for the same jobs. “They’re abusing the power of
right-to-work,” Steimel said.
Bussie in retirement
At the time of his death, Bussie was married to the former Frances “Fran” Martinez Nolan (born May 6, 1935),
herself a political activist. Fran Bussie’s parents were John O.
Martinez (1906–1990) and Althea Williams Martinez (1914–2003) of New
Orleans. Her brothers are Tony and Johnny Martinez. Bussie’s first wife, from whom he was divorced, was the former Gertrude Foley (October 15, 1918 – September 16, 2005), who died in Round Rock in suburban Williamson County, Texas.
Bussie was affiliated with the liberal wing of the Democratic Party. In 1964, he campaigned even in north Louisiana, a stronghold of the Republican U.S. Senator Barry M. Goldwater that year, on behalf of U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson, who lost that region by a large margin in the last election prior to passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965,
which thereafter enfranchised tens of thousands of black voters, most
of whom became automatic Democrats. Bussie was even closer to Johnson’s vice president, Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota, who had attended Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge during the 1930s but failed to win’s the state’s electoral votes in 1968.
In retirement, Bussie joined a group of Louisiana business and political leaders, including the former Republican Governor David C. Treen, in unsuccessfully urging President George W. Bush to pardon imprisoned Governor Edwin Washington Edwards. Edwards remained behind bars until 2011 in the federal facility in Oakdale in Allen Parish because of his conviction of bribery.
Bussie supported Edwards in all four of the Democrat’s successful
gubernatorial campaigns. Edwards once said that Bussie was the
singlemost influential person in his administration. Bussie also endorsed at least one Republican candidate in Louisiana, John S. Treen, the older brother of David Treen. John Treen lost to David Duke in the 1989 special election for the Louisiana state House from Jefferson Parish.
In 1994, Bussie, along with the late U.S. Senator Allen J. Ellender, was among the second round of public figures inducted into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield. He was a recipient of the “Racial Justice Award” given annually by the Baton Rouge Young Women’s Christian Association. In 1998, Bussie and former Governor John McKeithen were among recipients named “Living Legends” by the Louisiana Public Broadcasting Service.
In 1997, Bussie received an honorary degree from Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, and other such honorary degrees followed. Then Southeastern President Sally Clausen
described Bussie as “an individual who has distingused himself through
his quiet but steadfast work for the underprivileged and his strong
stand for justice. He has been a lifelong supporter of education,
serving as an advocate for quality instruction and a voice of support
for higher education… “.
With back problems, Bussie resigned in 2008 from his last state board, the University of Louisiana System
Board of Supervisors. He and his wife, Fran, left their home and moved
into the St. James Place retirement community in Baton Rouge. In an
interview with the Baton Rouge Morning Advocate, Bussie indicated that he would not write a book of memoirs
despite his significance to 20th century Louisiana history. He has been
named the 2008 recipient of the “Friend of Education” award from the
Louisiana Federation of Teacher, an affiliate of the American Federation
of Teachers. Bussie said that he had long promoted educational
opportunity because college had never been an option for him. Bussie’s
papers are in the archives of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Victor and Fran Bussie have also completed an oral history for the Louisiana Secretary of State’s office.
Bob Mann, LSU communications professor, said that Bussie was more
influential than many governors. “I can’t think of anyone who wielded so
much power for such an extended period of time.” Mann described Bussie
as “a living, breathing treasure trove of Louisiana’s political history”
but “so soft-spoken and modest.”
Even Ed Steimel,
Bussie’s top rival, had tremendous respect for Bussie. “Many
businesspeople felt organized labor was running the state,” Steimel said
of his being recruited by LABI to take on the AFL-CIO in the 1970s.
“But we were never really anti each other, and we’ve become closer
CEO Boysie Bollinger, who sat next to Bussie on the UL System board,
said he initially saw Bussie as a Louisiana “icon,” who as an aggressive
union lobbyist “represented everything that I was opposed to.”
But Bollinger said that, after getting to know Bussie, they became
friends, and he respected Bussie’s passion for education and worker
Sibal Holt, the first black female president of an AFL-CIO state
branch, said Bussie was “the champion of workers” of all colors and
sexes. “I sort of viewed him as an octopus with tentacles reaching all
over. But he was as sincere as the day is long.”
Critics have said Bussie’s and his colleagues’ involvement in so many
areas of government amounted to a power grab to keep unions very
influential. Bussie is emphatic that he only wanted to serve his state
as much as he was able. “It may sound corny, but that’s just the way I
lived.” He is proud of serving on all the boards without ever accepting
any per diem payments or salaries.
Bob Mann said Bussie was just doing his job. “It was his job to place
labor in the most powerful positions he could,” Mann said. “He wielded a
lot of power, but he did it in a soft-spoken and respectful way.”
T. Wayne Parent, the Russell B. Long Professor of Political Science
at LSU and formerly a young staffer at the State Capitol, said that he
was often mesmerized watching Bussie lobby the legislature. Lawmakers
would look toward Bussie when certain bills came up, and the labor
president would nod “Yes” or “No.” Parent said that Bussie “really did
represent the quiet strength labor can have behind the scenes.”
Sally Clausen, the state commissioner of higher education, saw Bussie
as her political guide. Clausen remembers Bussie’s small,
“dungeon-like” office. Yet people would flock to him as soon as he
entered a room. “I’ve never known someone as altruistic and humble, and
still so powerful,” she said.
Bussie said he had a good relationship with every governor from Earl Long to Murphy J. “Mike” Foster, Jr., with the exception of Democrat-turned-Republican Buddy Roemer.
Bussie remained close to former Governor Edwin Edwards. A few years
before his incarceration, Edwards flew in from a vacation to attend
Bussie’s 1997 retirement dinner. “I said, ‘Well Edwin, that’s the first
time you ever paid for anything out of your own money,’” Bussie joked.
Bussie died of complications from stomach cancer at the age of
ninety-two at Baton Rouge General Medical Center-Bluebonnet on the
Sunday before Labor Day 2011. In 1989, Bussie had heart by-pass surgery, and in 1993, he lost a kidney to cancer.
In addition to his second wife, “Fran” Bussie of Baton Rouge, he was
survived by two daughters from his first marriage to the former Gertrude
Foley: Deanna Love, of Wimberley,
Texas, and Carolyn B. Huff and husband David, of Round Rock, Texas;
stepchildren Tara Nolan Messenger and husband Terry and Michael Q.
Nolan, all of Baton Rouge; six grandchildren, and three
step-grandchildren. Services were held on September 9. 2011 at the First
United Methodist Church in Baton Rouge. Interment was at Resthaven Gardens of Memory Cemetery on the Jefferson Highway.
To see more of who died in 2011 click here
Hugh Bernard Fox Jr. was a writer, novelist, poet and anthropologist and one of the founders (with Ralph Ellison, Anaïs Nin, Paul Bowles, Joyce Carol Oates, Buckminster Fuller and others) of the Pushcart Prize for literature died he was 79.. He has been published in numerous literary magazines and was the first writer to publish a critical study of Charles Bukowski.
Life and career
Fox was born and raised in Chicago as a devout Catholic, but converted to Judaism in later life. He received a Ph.D. in American Literature from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and was a professor at Michigan State University in the Department of American Thought and Language from 1968 until his retirement in 1999. Hugh Fox died on September 4, 2011 in East Lansing, MI.
Fox was the author of over sixty-two books, including six books on anthropology.
He wrote over fifty-four books on poetry and many volumes on short
fiction, and published many novels. Fox also wrote a number of books on
pre-Columbian American cultures and catastrophism. Some of these works were labeled in the pseudoarchaeological category, such as his book Gods of the Cataclysm: A Revolutionary Investigation of Man and his Gods Before and After the Great Cataclysm (1976). Some of his books with these themes have been compared to the work of Ignatius Donnelly.
His book Gods of the Cataclysm received a number of positive
reviews. Editor Curt Johnson praised the book claiming “Hugh Fox’s Gods
of the Cataclysm…ought to be required reading for cultural historians
of all disciplines,” and Robert Sagehorn of The Western World Review
cited Hugh Fox as “… one of the foremost authorities (perhaps the foremost authority) on pre-Columbian American cultures.” Gods of the Cataclysm was revised and re-released in the summer of 2011 by Aardwolfe Books.  
The Ibbetson Street Press of Somerville, Massachusetts published Way, Way Off the Road: The Memoirs of an Invisible Man
by Hugh Fox with an introduction by Doug Holder in 2006. This book
recounts Fox’s life and the people he knew from his extensive
associations with the “Small Press” marketplace over the years,
including Charles Bukowski, A.D. Winans, Sam Cornish, Len Fulton, and numerous other people.
Fox’s novel e Lord Said Unto Satan was published in the spring of 2011 by Post Mortem Press (Cincinnati).  His final novel was Reunion, published by Luminis Books in summer 2011.
Also in summer, 2011, Ravenna Press published his description in prose
poems of one year of his life in E. Lansing, MI, “The Year Book.” 
To see more of who died in 2011 click here
(25 April 1919 – 3 September 2011)
At the Norwegian Championships, Helgesen won the 500 m in 1947 and 1949. He became Olympic Champion on the 500 m at the 1948 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz in a new Olympic record time of 43.1 seconds – a mere 0.1 seconds ahead of three skaters winning Olympic silver.
At the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo
(his hometown), Helgesen and two other skaters skated 44.0 seconds on
the 500 m, a time good enough for bronze. But because Helgesen had lost
the heat against one of those two skaters, he was ranked 5th. Note that
times were measured to a precision of only one tenth of a second in
those days – at the speeds on the 500 m, it was possible for two skaters
to finish in the same time, while one of them finished more than one
meter ahead of the other. Stated differently: In one tenth of a second,
these skaters advanced more than one meter.
Helgesen skated for Oslo Skøiteklub (“Oslo Skating Club”), the same skating club many other famous Norwegian skaters skated for at one time or other – Roald Aas, Ivar Ballangrud, Bernt Evensen, Rudolf Gundersen, Oscar Mathisen, and Laila Schou Nilsen, amongst others.
To put these personal records in perspective, the WR column lists the official world records on the dates that Helgesen skated his personal records.
|500 m||43.1||31 January 1948||St. Moritz||41.8|
|1,000 m||1:31.5||27 January 1952||Gjøvik||1:28.4|
|1,500 m||2:25.4||3 January 1952||Oslo||2:13.8|
Helgesen has an Adelskalender score of 202.046 points.
To see more of who died in 2011 click here
(18 February 1914 – 3 September 2011)
In September 2006, Efraim Zuroff of the Wiesenthal Center made public copies of a 1944 court verdict finding Képíró and 14 other Hungarian Army and police officers of taking part in 1942 raid in Novi Sad. In 1948, the government of Hungary retried him in absentia
and sentenced him to 14 years. This verdict was based upon the
testimony of János Nagy, a former Hungarian soldier of Képíró’s platoon.
However, the testimony was given after the communist secret service tortured Nagy. Képíró claimed that he had never ever heard of him. Képíró returned to Budapest in 1996 without being identified until that point.
Responding to the Wiesenthal Center accusations, Képíró said he had
been a junior police officer at the time who had been involved in the
round up of civilians, but denied taking an active part in the
executions, which were carried out by soldiers. Képíró also said he
refused orders to take part in anything illegal. “I was the only one who
asked for a written command. At the time of the massacre I was
reluctant. Prove that I was a war criminal.” The 1944 verdict provided
by the Wiesenthal Center, however, states that despite Képíró’s request
for written orders, he participated in the massacre even though none
Hungarian military prosecutors state that the previous verdicts are
no longer valid and a new investigation would have to be reopened, which
might take years. On 14 September 2009, he was taken in for questioning
by Hungarian police. However, because of the lack of evidence, the
charges against him were later dropped.
Képíró has accused Efraim Zuroff of libel
and initiated criminal proceedings in a Budapest court. The case opened
in October 2010. If convicted, Zuroff could have faced up to two years
in prison. However, the case was dismissed on 17 December 2010 based on the 1944 verdict  as well as due to Képíró’s failure to appear in court.
On 14 February 2011 Hungarian prosecutors charged Képíró. On 18 July 2011, he was found not guilty by a Budapest court.
After the verdict László Karsai,
the leading Hungarian Holocaust historian, son of a Holocaust survivor,
said: “Honestly, I wish Zuroff stopped doing what he’s doing. I mean:
with this kind of methods he uses, with so little evidence, he tries to
drag people through the mire. This can’t be done to anyone, can’t be
done even to a former gendarmerie officer either.” Professor Karsai
accused Zuroff of being a hysterical, narcissistic
Nazi-hunter, working only to earn a good living. Karsai claimed that
the Wiesenthal Center made such a publicity to the case in order to
justify its own existence before the sponsors.
Sándor Képíró died in hospital in Budapest at the age of 97. His
death was reported by his family and lawyer, who said he believed the
trial in summer had contributed to his client’s poor health.
Until 2011, he was on the Simon Wiesenthal Center‘s list of most wanted Nazi war criminals.
To see more of who died in 2011 click here