Reza Sayed Badiyi was an Iranian-American film director. Badiyi was well known for directing episodes of many popular (and quite distinct) television series. His credits also include developing the memorable opening montages (title visualization) for Hawaii Five-O, Get Smart, and The Mary Tyler Moore Show.
|(April 17, 1930 – August 20, 2011)|
Early life and education
Badiyi was born April 17, 1930, in Arak, Iran. His parents were from Isfahan. He graduated from the Academy of Drama in Iran. He moved to the United States in 1955. He graduated from Syracuse University with a degree in film making.
After Syracuse University Badiyi often worked with Robert Altman.
Badiyi was assistant director on the low-budget 1957 film “The
Delinquents,” which marked Altman’s feature film debut as a director.
Early in his career, he directed episodes of Get Smart, Mission: Impossible, Hawaii Five-O, The Incredible Hulk, Mannix, The Six Million Dollar Man, Starsky and Hutch, The Rockford Files and Police Squad!.
He also directed the definitive “fashion show” sequence of the third
season of the popular “Doris Day Show”. There were lowlights, as well,
including directing the unsold pilot for “Inside O.U.T.”, starring
Farrah Fawcett and a chimp for Colombia/Screen Gems in 1971.
In the 1980s and 1990s, he directed episodes of Falcon Crest, Cagney and Lacey, Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Buffy the Vampire Slayer (the episode “Out of Mind, Out of Sight“), Le Femme Nikita, Sliders and Baywatch.
On October 2008, Badiyi received the Lifetime Achievement Award (Persian Golden Lioness) in dramatic arts from The World Academy of Arts Literature and Media – WAALM
On May 2010, Badiyi was honored at UCLA for his 80th birthday and his 60th year in the entertainment industry.
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Ross Barbour, American singer, last founding member of The Four Freshmen, died from lung cancer he was 82.
(December 31, 1928 – August 20, 2011)
The Four Freshmen originated in early 1948 when brothers Ross and Don
Barbour, then at Butler University’s Arthur Jordan Conservatory in
Indianapolis, Indiana, formed a barbershop quartet called Hal’s
Harmonizers. The Harmonizers also included Marvin Pruitt — soon replaced
by Ross and Don’s cousin Bob Flanigan
— and Hal Kratzsch (1925–70), replaced in 1953 by Ken Errair. The
quartet soon adopted a more jazz-oriented repertoire and renamed itself
the Toppers. At first, they were influenced by Glenn Miller‘s The Modernaires and Mel Tormé‘s
Mel-Tones, but soon developed their own style of improvised vocal
harmony. In September 1948, the quartet went on the road as The Four
Freshmen, and soon drew the admiration of jazz legends such as Dizzy Gillespie and Woody Herman.
In 1950, The Four Freshmen got a break when band leader Stan Kenton heard the quartet in Dayton, Ohio, and arranged for an audition with his label, Capitol Records,
which signed The Four later that year. In 1952, they released their
first hit single “It’s a Blue World”. Further hits included “Mood
Indigo” in 1954, “Day by Day” in 1955, and “Graduation Day” in 1956.
Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, The Four Freshmen released a
number of recordings, made film and television appearances, and
performed in concert. The group eventually lost their mainstream
following with the advent of the British pop bands of the 1960s. After
Barbour’s retirement in 1977, the Freshmen continued under the
management of Flanigan, who kept the rights to The Four Freshmen name.
Flanigan died on May 15, 2011 at the age of 84.
Barbour died of cancer on August 20, 2011, aged 82.
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(September 11, 1929 – August 27, 2011)
Born as Jean Ann Ewers in Houston, Texas in 1929, and raised in Fort Worth, she appeared on radio and television (guest-starring roles and hundreds of commercials), in movies and on the theater stage.
Some of her early film work includes roles in Gun Girls (1956), Journey to Freedom (1957) and Forty Guns (1957). She became the twelfth actress to play Jane when she appeared opposite Gordon Scott‘s Tarzan in the film Tarzan’s Fight for Life, (1958). She also played the role in Tarzan and the Trappers 1958, three episodes filmed as a pilot for a proposed Tarzan television series. She also appeared in the “Girl on the Road” episode of The Veil, a short 1958 Boris Karloff TV series that was never aired.
In 1980 she won a Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress for her work in Fade to Black. Her best-known recent work in films was in The Green Mile, 1999. She continued to work in episodic television, and made a guest appearance in 2006 on an episode of Scrubs, and in 2010 on an episode of Community.
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(26 November 1919 – 20 August 2011)
He taught at Patna University, Delhi University (1973–85) and the University of Toronto and was a senior fellow at School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London; University Grants Commission National Fellow (1958–81) and President of Indian History Congress
in 1975. It was during the tenure of Professor R. S. Sharma as the Dean
of Delhi University’s History Department in the 1970s that major
expansion of the department took place. The creation of most of the positions in the Department owes to Professor Sharma’s efforts. He is the founding Chairman of the Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR) and a historian of international repute.
On his death, a function was organized by the Indian Council of Historical Research which was hosted by the Nehru Memorial Museum & Library, the eminent historians Romila Thapar, Irfan Habib, D.N.Jha, Satish Chandra, Kesavan Veluthat and ICHR Chairperson Basudev Chatterjee paid rich tributes to R.S. Sharma and emphasized that he had influenced them in more ways than one. Professor Bipan Chandra paid him the most handsome tribute: “After D.D. Kosambi, R.S. Sharma was the greatest historian of India.” Two of the most gifted historians of our times —D.N.Jha and Sumit Sarkar — were brought to Delhi University when Sharma was at the helm.
During his lifetime, he authored 115 books
published in fifteen languages. As head of the departments of History
at Patna University and Delhi University, as Chairman of the Indian
Council of Historical Research, as an important member of the National
Commission of the History of Sciences in India and UNESCO
Commission on the history of Central Asian Civilizations and of the
University Grants Commission, New Delhi, and, above all, as a practising
historian he has been influencing the major decisions relating to
historical research in India. At the instance of Dr. Sachchidanand Sinha, when Professor Sharma was in Patna College,
he worked as special officer on deputation in the Political Department
in 1948 where he was deputed to prepare a report on the Bihar-Bengal
Boundary Dispute which he prepared in right earnest. His pioneering effort resolved the border dispute forever which has been recorded by Dr. Sachchinand Sinha in a letter to Rajendra Prasad.
Sharma was born in Barauni, Begusarai, Bihar in a poor Bhumihar Brahmin family.
With great difficulty his father sponsored his education till
matriculation. After that he kept on getting scholarships and even did
private tuitions to support his education. In his youth he came in contact with peasant leaders like Karyanand Sharma and Sahajanand Saraswati and scholars like Rahul Sankrityayan
and perhaps from them he imbibed the determination to fight for social
justice and an abiding concern for the downtrodden which drew him to
left ideology. His later association with Dr. Sachchidanand Sinha,
a social reformer and journalist, broadened his mental horizon and
firmly rooted him in the reality of rural India and thus strengthened
his ties with the left movement and brought him into the front rank of
anti-imperialist and anti-communal intellectuals of the country.
Education and achievements
He passed matriculation in 1937 and joined Patna College, where he studied for six years from intermediate to postgraduate classes. He did his Ph.D. from the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London under Professor Arthur Llewellyn Basham. He taught at colleges in Ara (1943) and Bhagalpur (July 1944 to November 1946) before coming to Patna College in 1946. He became the head of the Department of History at Patna University from 1958-1973.
He became a university professor in 1958. He served as professor and
Dean of the History Department at Delhi University from 1973–1978. He
got the Jawaharlal Fellowship in 1969. He was the founding Chairperson
of Indian Council of Historical Research from 1972-1977. He has been a visiting fellow at the School of Oriental and African Studies (1959–64); University Grants Commission National Fellow (1958–81); visiting Professor of History in University of Toronto (1965–66); President of Indian History Congress in 1975 and recipient of Jawaharlal Nehru Award in 1989. He became the deputy-chairperson of UNESCO‘s
International Association for Study of Central Asia from 1973–1978; he
has served as an important member of the National Commission of History
of Sciences in India and a member of the University Grants Commission.
Sharma got the Campbell Memorial Gold Medal (for outstanding Indologist) for 1983 by the Asiatic Society of Bombay in November, 1987; received the H. K. Barpujari Biennial National Award by Indian History Congress for Urban Decay in India in 1992 and worked as National Fellow of the Indian Council of Historical Research (1988–91).
He is a member of many academic committees and associations. He has
also been recipient of the K. P. Jayaswal Fellowship of the K. P. Jayaswal Research Institute, Patna (1992–94); he was invited to receive Hemchandra Raychaudhuri Birth Centenary Gold Medal for outstanding historian from The Asiatic Society in August 2001; and in 2002 the Indian History Congress gave him the Vishwanath Kashinath Rajwade Award for his life-long service and contribution to Indian history. He got D.Litt (Honoris Causa) from the University of Burdwan and a similar degree from Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, Varanasi. He is also the president of the editorial group of the scholastic magazine Social Science Probings. He is a member of the Board of Khuda Bakhsh Oriental Library.
His works have been translated into many Indian languages apart from
being written in Hindi and English. Fifteen of his works have been
translated into Bengali. Apart from Indian languages many of his works
have been translated into many foreign languages like Japanese, French,
German, Russian, etc.
In the opinion of fellow historian Professor Irfan Habib, “D. D. Kosambi and R. S. Sharma, together with Daniel Thorner, brought peasants into the study of Indian history for the first time.” Prof. Dwijendra Narayan Jha
published a book in his honour in 1996, titled “Society and Ideology in
India: ed. Essays in Honour of Professor R. S. Sharma” (Munshiram
Manoharlal, Delhi, 1996). In his honour, a selection of essays was
published by the K. P. Jaiswal Research Institute, Patna in 2005.
Journalist Sham Lal writes about him, “R. S. Sharma, a perceptive historian of Ancient India,
has too great a regard for the truth about the social evolution in
India over a period of two thousand years, stretching from 1500 BC to
500 AD, to take refuge in a world of make-believe.”
Professor Sumit Sarkar
opines: “Indian historiography, starting with D. D. Kosambi in the
1950s, is acknowledged the world over – wherever South Asian history is
taught or studied – as quite on a par with or even superior to all that
is produced abroad. And that is why Irfan Habib or Romila Thapar
or R. S. Sharma are figures respected even in the most diehard
anti-Communist American universities. They cannot be ignored if you are
studying South Asian history.”
As an Institution Builder
Impatient with inefficiency and guided by his radicalism, Professor Sharma had been a great builder of institutions. Under his guidance the department of History, Patna University,
drastically changed its syllabi and made a sharp departure from the
communal and imperialist historiographical legacy of the colonial
He has the credit of activising the dapartment which was suffering from
an almost incurable inertia and of initiating academic programmes which
gave a distinct character to the History department of Patna University
and thereby bringing it into the vanguard of secular and scientific
where he spent a smaller part of his teaching career, Professor
Sharma’s achievements are no less significant. The development of the
department of History, Delhi University,
owes a great deal to the efforts of Professor Sharma who radicalized it
by converting it into a citadel of secular and scientific History and
waged an all out war against communalist historiography.
It is largely because of his efforts that the largest body of professional Indian historians, the Indian History Congress, of which he was the general president in 1975 and which honoured him with H.K. Barpujari Award in 1989, has now become the symbol of secular and scientific approach to History.
Professor R.S.Sharma was known for his simplicity. He was tall, fair and was always clad in dhoti-kurta. Historian Suvira Jaisawal,
Sharma’s first PhD student, remembers her teacher not only giving a
lesson in good writing but even mundane stuff like how to put pin in
papers so it did not hurt anyone. In the opinion of his student, Historian Dwijendra Narayan Jha, “A
man of courage, conviction, utter humility and a strong social
commitment, Professor Sharma is as unassuming as indefatigable in his
academic pursuits. Full of compassion, he has been a constant source of
inspiration to his pupils and other younger scholars. While he has been
all warmth to his friends, he is extremely decent and generous to his
detractors. His qualities of head and heart make him a truly great man.“
Professor Sharma’s mastery of epigraphic, literary and archaeological
texts enabled him to demolish many myths created by
imperialist-colonialist historiography as well as by the cultural
chauvinists of more recent times, and made scientific study of the
ever-changing Indian society in all its dimensions possible.
His humility had no limits — he was always ready to learn even from a
novice working in the discipline of history and go to the extent of
acknowledging him/ her in his works.
Such a combination of scholarship and humility is not seen easily
today, when even toddlers in history writing prefer to blow their own
trumpets in the din of the market.
In his writings Professor Sharma has focussed on early Indian social
structure, material and economic life, state formation and political
ideas and the social context of religious ideologies and has sought to
underline the historical processes which shaped Indian culture and civilization. In his study of each of these aspects of Ancient Indian History he has laid stress on the elements of change and continuity.
This has significantly conditioned his methodology which basically
rests on a critical evaluation of sources and a correlation between literary texts with archaeology and ethnography.
His methodology is being increasingly extended to the study of various
aspects of Indian history just as the problems studied by him an the
questions raised by him have generated a bulk of historical literature
in recent years.
- Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India (Motilal Banarsidass, Fifth Revised Edition, Delhi, 2005)
- Sudras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa AD 600 (Motilal Banarsidass, Third Revised Edition, Delhi, 1990; Reprint, Delhi, 2002)
- India’s Ancient Past (Oxford University Press, 2005)
- Looking for the Aryans (Orient Longman Publishers, 1995, Delhi)
- Indian Feudalism (Macmillan Publishers India Ltd., 3rd Revised Edition, Delhi, 2005)
- Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation (Orient Longman Publishers Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 2003)
- Perspectives in Social and Economic History of Ancient India (Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi, 2003)
- Urban Decay in India c. 300- c. 1000 (Munshiram Manoharlal, Delhi, 1987)
In contrast to his predecessors who had focussed their attention on the study of higher orders, he published his Sudras in Ancient India as early as 1958 and examined the relationship of the lower social orders with the means of production from the Vedic age up to the Gupta period. In the following year (1959) his Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in Ancient India,
apart from national chauvinist and revivalist approach of earlier
Historians, emphasized the material basis of the power structure in Ancient India, a point he also stressed in his later work The Origin of State in India (1990). In 1965, his Indian Feudalism posed a major problem as to whether India passed through the phase of Feudalism (see Indian feudalism). His Social Changes in Early Medieval India,
being the first Dev Raj Chanana Memorial Lecture, brought into focus
the changes in social structure that accompanied the origin and growth
of feudalism in early India and in 1987 his Urban Decay in India (c.300-1000)
drew attention to the overwhelming mass of archaeological evidence to
demonstrate the decline of urban centres in early medieval period which
reinforces his arguments reharding the genesis and growth of feudalism
in India. In another work, Material Culture and Social Formations in Ancient India (1985),
on which he worked as Jawaharlal Nehru Fellow, Professor Sharma has
sought to unravel the process of class formation, and social
implications of the material changes in the Vedic period and in the age of the Buddha on the basis of literary and archaeological sources.
Professor Sharma’s researches cover the whole range of early Indian history and are largely summarized in his popular textbook Ancient India (1977) written for the National Council of Educational Research and Training. When this book was withdrawn under pressure of obscurantist elements he launched an attack on them in his In Defence of “Ancient India” (1979) and the book was subsequently restored.
Theory of Feudalism
The publication of his monograph Indian Feudalism
in 1965 caused almost a furore in the academia, generating intense
debate and sharp responses both in favour of and against the
applicability of the model of “feudalism” to the Indian situation at any
point of time. The concept of “feudalism” was initially used by D. D. Kosambi to analyse the developments in the socio-economic sphere in the late ancient and medieval periods of Indian history.
Sharma, while differing from Kosambi on certain significant points,
added a great deal of depth to the approach with his painstaking
research and forceful arguments. The work has been called his magnum opus. Criticism goaded Sharma into reinforcing his thesis by producing another work of fundamental importance, Urban Decay in India (c.300-1000),
in which he marshalled an impressive mass of archaeological data to
demonstrate the decline of urban centres, a crucial element of his
thesis on feudalism. It won him the H.K. Barpujari award instituted by the Indian History Congress. However, the redoubtable professor was unstoppable, and in his Early Medieval Indian Society: A Study in Feudalisation (Orient Longman, 2001), he further rebutted the objections of his critics point by point.
Sharma applied the tool of historical materialism not only to explain
social differentiation and stages of economic development, but also to
the realm of ideology.
His investigations into the “feudal mind” and “economic and social
basis of tantrism” are thought-provoking, opening up new lines of
inquiry. In an earlier article, he examined “the material milieu of the birth of Buddhism”, which now forms a part of his Material Culture and Social Formations in Ancient India (Macmillan, 1983). The monograph, full of seminal ideas, has been translated into several Indian and foreign languages and has had 11 editions.
The issue of Aryans
Sharma wrote two books, Looking for the Aryans (Orient Longman, 1995) and Advent of the Aryans in India
(Manohar, 1999), to demolish the myth assiduously cultivated by the
historiography that the Aryans were the original inhabitants of India
and Harappa culture was their creation. More recently, when some people sought to get a new lease of life by creating a crisis over Adam’s Bridge, or Ram Sethu,
by asserting that it was a man-made construction built by Ram and not a
natural formation (the result of continuous wave action), the
Government of India appointed a committee of three with two bureaucrats
and a historian to examine the veracity of such claims. Sharma, who was the historian on the committee, submitted his report in December 2007 and thus helped in diffusing the crisis. Incidentally, work on the report occasioned his last visit to Delhi.
Views on communalism
Sharma has denounced communalism of all types. In his booklet, Communal History and Rama’s Ayodhya, he writes, “Ayodhya seems to have emerged as a place of religious pilgrimage in medieval times. Although chapter 85 of the Vishnu Smriti lists as many as 52 places of pilgrimage, including towns, lakes, rivers, mountains, etc., it does not include Ayodhya
in this list.” But as the team leader of the Babri Masjid Action
Committee, he failed to furnish proof when asked by the Chandrasekhar
government in 1990, that Babri Masjid was not built destroying a Rama
temple in the disputed Ram Janmobhoomi site. Sharma also notes that Tulsidas, who wrote the Ramcharitmanas in 1574 at Ayodhya, does not mention it as a place of pilgrimage. After the demolition of Babri masjid, he along with Historians Suraj Bhan, M.Athar Ali and Dwijendra Narayan Jha came up with the Historian’s report to the nation
on how the communalists were mistaken in their assumption that there
was a temple at the disputed site and how it was sheer vandalism in
bringing down the mosque and the book has been translated into all the
Indian languages. He had denounced the vandalism of Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute in 2004.
His 1977 Ancient India was banned by the Janata Party government in 1978, among other things for its criticism of the historicity of Krishna and the events of the Mahabharata epic, reporting the historical position that
- “Although Krishna plays an important role in the Mahabharata,
inscriptions and sculptural pieces found in Mathura dating back to 200
BC and 300 AD do not attest to his presence. Because of this, ideas of
an epic age based on the Ramayana and Mahabharata have to be
He has supported the addition of the Ayodhya dispute and the 2002 Gujarat riots to school syllabus calling them ‘socially relevant topics’ to broaden the horizons of youngsters.
This was his remark when the NCERT decided to include the Gujarat riots
and the Ayodhya dispute besides the 1984 anti-Sikh riots in the Class
XII political science books, arguing that these events influenced the
political process in the country since Independence.
Andre Wink, Professor of History at University of Wisconsin–Madison criticizes Sharma in Al-Hind: The Making of the Indo-Islamic World (Vol. I) for drawing too close parallels between European and Indian feudalism.
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Courtemanche was born in Montreal, Quebec. He began his career as a journalist in 1962, with several collaborations with Radio-Canada including Le 60, Métro Magazine and Présent National. He later created L’Évènement,
a television program with Radio-Canada which he also hosted between
1978 and 1980. During the same period, he was also an editorialist with
CBOT, an Ottawa radio station. In 1978, he hosted Contact, the first public affairs magazine for Télé-Québec. Between 1980 and 1986, he worked as a host, analyst and correspondent for the programs Télémag, Première Page and Le Point with Radio-Canada.
Courtemanche helped found the sovereigntist and social democrat newspaper Le Jour, and also worked as a journalist with La Presse.
From 1986, he worked on various publications such as Alternatives and
Le Libraire. He published columns on international politics in Le Soleil, Le Droit, and Le Devoir.
He participated in making documentaries, including the series Soleil dans la nuit for TV5 Europe-Afrique-Canada, on the first anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide. He also filmed a documentary on AIDS titled The Gospel of AIDS. Furthermore, he helped produced various documentaries and advertisements on the third-world for Le Cardinal Léger et ses œuvres and OXFAM-Québec:
leprosy in Haiti, the politics of water, agricultural development in
the Philippines, education for disabled children in Thailand, etc.
His first novel, Un dimanche à la piscine à Kigali, which documents the Rwandan genocide of 1994, was published in 2000. It was chosen for inclusion in the French version of Canada Reads, broadcast on Radio-Canada in 2004, where it was defended by writer, environmentalist and activist Laure Waridel. Un dimanche à la piscine à Kigali eventually won the contest. It was filmed as Un dimanche à Kigali.
- Douces colères (1989)
- Trente artistes dans un train (1989)
- Chroniques internationales (1991)
- Québec (1998)
- Nouvelles douces colères (1999)
- Un dimanche à la piscine à Kigali (2000) (translated into English as A Sunday at the Pool in Kigali by Patricia Claxton (2003))
- La Seconde Révolution tranquille – Démocratiser la démocratie (essay) (2003)
- Une belle mort (2005)
- Le monde, le lézard et moi (2009)
- Je ne veux pas mourir seul (2010)
Awards and recognition
- Winner: Prix des Libraires, 2000
- Winner: National Magazine Award for Political Reporting, 1998
- Nominee 2003 – Governor General’s Award (French to English translation)
- Nominee 2004 – Rogers Writers’ Trust Fiction Prize
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Raúl Ruiz, Chilean film director (Three Lives and Only One Death, Time Regained), died from pulmonary infection at 70.
(25 July 1941 – 19 August 2011)
The son of a ship’s captain and a schoolteacher in southern Chile,
Raúl Ruiz abandoned his university studies in theology and law to write
100 plays with the support of a Rockefeller Foundation
grant. He went on to learn his craft working in Chilean and Mexican
television and studying at film school in Argentina (1964). Back in
Chile, he made his feature debut Three Sad Tigers (1968), sharing the Golden Leopard at the 1969 Locarno Film Festival. He was something of an outsider among the politically oriented filmmakers of his generation such as Miguel Littín and Patricio Guzmán, his work being far more ironic, surrealistic and experimental. In 1973, shortly after the military coup d’état led by the dictator Augusto Pinochet, Ruiz and his wife (fellow director Valeria Sarmiento) fled Chile and settled in Paris, France.
Ruiz soon developed a reputation among European critics and
cinephiles as an avant-garde film magician, writing and directing a
remarkable number of amusingly eccentric though highly literary and
complex low-to-no-budget films in the 1970s and 1980s (often for
France’s Institut national de l’audiovisuel and then for Portuguese producer Paulo Branco). The best known of these are Colloque de chiens (1977, a César Award-winning short which marked the start of Ruiz’s long-term working relationship with Chilean composer Jorge Arriagada), The Suspended Vocation (1978), The Hypothesis of the Stolen Painting (1979), On Top of the Whale (1982), Three Crowns of the Sailor (1983), City of Pirates (1983), Manoel’s Destinies (1985), Treasure Island (1985) and Life is a Dream (1986). A special issue of Cahiers du cinéma was devoted to Ruiz in March 1983.
In the 1990s, Ruiz began working with larger budgets and “name” stars like John Hurt in Dark at Noon (1992) and Marcello Mastroianni in Three Lives and Only One Death (1996). The following year, he made Genealogies of a Crime starring Catherine Deneuve, winning the Silver Bear at the 47th Berlin International Film Festival. A second major French actress, Isabelle Huppert, worked with Ruiz on Comedy of Innocence (2000), which was nominated for the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival. The American John Malkovich acted in the star-studded Marcel Proust adaptation Time Regained (1999) and the somewhat less successful Savage Souls (2001) and Klimt (2006). That Day (2003) was the fourth and last Ruiz film to be shown in the main competition of the Cannes Film festival. He also made forays into the English-language mainstream with the thrillers Shattered Image (1998) and A Closed Book
(2010). In the final decade of his life, Ruiz wrote and directed
several low-budget productions in his native Chile, but his final
international triumph was the Franco-Portuguese epic Mysteries of Lisbon (2010), which won the Silver Shell for Best Director at the San Sebastián International Film Festival and also France’s prestigious Louis Delluc Prize.
Over the years, Ruiz taught his own particular brand of film theory, which he explained in his two books Poetics of Cinema 1: Miscellanies (1995) and Poetics of Cinema 2
(2007), and actively engaged in film and video projects with university
and film school students in many countries, including the US, France,
Colombia, Chile, Italy and Scotland.
Ruiz died in August 2011 as a result of complications from a lung
infection, having successfully undergone a liver transplant in early
2010 after being diagnosed with a life-threatening tumour. The
Presidents of France and Chile both praised him. The Church of Saint George-Paul in Paris held a memorial service which was attended by many notable friends, including Catherine Deneuve, Chiara Mastroianni, Melvil Poupaud, Paulo Branco, Arielle Dombasle, Michel Piccoli and Jorge Edwards.
Ruiz’s body was then returned to Chile to be buried as specified in his
will and a National Day of Mourning was declared in Chile.
Ruiz’s final completed feature Night Across the Street (2012) was selected to be screened posthumously in the Directors’ Fortnight section of the 2012 Cannes Film Festival. His widow Valeria Sarmiento, who was also his collaborator and frequent editor for several decades, is completing The Lines of Wellington (2012), the Napoleonic epic that Ruiz was preparing when he died.
- La maleta (1963) – short film lost and completed in 2008
- Le retour (1964) – unfinished short film
- El tango del viudo (1967) – unfinished
- Tres tristes tigres [Three Sad Tigers] (1968)
- La catanaria (1969)
- Militarismo y tortura (1969) – short film
- ¡Qué hacer! (1970)
- La colonia penal [The Penal Colony] (1970)
- Ahora te vamos a llamar hermano (1971) – short film
- Nadie dijo nada (1971)
- Los minuteros (1972) – short film
- Poesía popular: La teoría y la práctica (1972) – short film
- La expropiación [The Expropriation] (1972)
- Abastecimiento (1973) – short film
- Palomita blanca [Little White Dove] (1973)
- El realismo socialista (1973)
- Palomita brava (1973) – short film
- Diálogos de exiliados [Dialogues of Exiles] (1975)
- Sotelo (1976) – short film
- Utopia (1976)
- Colloque de chiens (1977) – short film
- Les divisions de la nature (1978) – short film
- La vocation suspendue [The Suspended Vocation] (1978)
- Petit manuel d’histoire de France (1979)
- Jeux (1979)
- De grands événements et de gens ordinaires [Of Great Events and Ordinary People] (1979)
- Images de débat (1979)
- L’hypothèse du tableau volé [The Hypothesis of the Stolen Painting] (1979)
- Zig-Zag – le jeu de l’oie (une fiction didactique à propos de la cartographie) (1980) – short film
- La ville nouvelle (1980) – short film
- Fahlstrom (1980) – short film
- Musée Dali (1980)
- L’image en silence (1980)
- Le borgne (1980)
- Teletests (1980) – short film
- The Territory (1981)
- Images de sable (1981) – short film
- Ombres chinoises (1982) – short film
- Querelle des jardins (1982) – short film
- Le petit théâtre (1982) – short film
- Het dak van de Walvis [On Top of the Whale] (1982)
- Bérénice (1983)
- La ville de Paris (1983)
- Lettre d’un cinéaste ou Le retour d’un amateur de bibliothèques [Letter from a Library Lover] (1983) – short film
- Les trois couronnes du matelot [Three Crowns of the Sailor] (1983)
- La ville des pirates [City of Pirates] (1983)
- Voyages d’une main (1984)
- Régime sans pain (1984)
- Point de fuite [Vanishing Point] (1984)
- Les destins de Manoel [Manoel's Destinies/Manoel on the Island of Marvels] (1985)
- L’Île au trésor [Treasure Island] (1985)
- La présence réelle (1985)
- L’éveillé du pont de l’Alma [The Insomniac on the Bridge] (1985)
- Richard III (1986)
- Mémoire des apparences [Life is a Dream] (1986)
- Dans un miroir (1986)
- Mammame (1986)
- Brise-glace (1987)
- La chouette aveugle [The Blind Owl] (1987)
- Le professeur Taranne (1987)
- Allegoria (1988)
- Tous les nuages sont des horloges (1988)
- Il pozzo dei pazzi (1989) – short film
- Derrière le mur (1989)
- Hub (1989)
- The Golden Boat (1990)
- La novela errante (1990) – unfinished
- A TV Dante (Cantos 9-14) (1991)
- Las soledades (1992) – short film
- L’oeil qui ment [Dark at Noon] (1992)
- Fado majeur et mineur [Fado, Major and Minor] (1994)
- Wind Water (1995) – short film
- Trois vies et une seule mort [Three Lives and Only One Death] (1996)
- Généalogies d’un crime [Genealogies of a Crime] (1997)
- Le film à venir (1997) – short film
- Shattered Image (1998)
- Le temps retrouvé [Time Regained] (1999)
- Comédie de l’innocence [Comedy of Innocence] (2000)
- Combat d’amour en songe [Love Torn in a Dream] (2000)
- Les Âmes fortes [Savage Souls] (2001)
- Miotte vu par Raúl Ruiz (2002)
- Cofralandes, rapsodia chilena [Cofralandes, Chilean Rhapsody] (2002)
- Ce jour-là [That Day] (2003)
- Une place parmi les vivants [A Place Among the Living/A Taste for Murder] (2003)
- Vertige de la page blanche [Vertigo of the Blank Page] (2003)
- Días de campo [Days in the Country] (2004)
- Le domaine perdu [The Lost Domain] (2005)
- Klimt (2006)
- Le Don (2007) – short film
- La Recta Provincia (2007)
- Litoral (2008)
- La maison Nucingen [Nucingen House] (2008)
- Agathopedia (2008)
- El pasaporte amarillo [The Yellow Passport] (2009)
- A Closed Book [Blind Revenge] (2010)
- L’estate breve (2010)
- Mistérios de Lisboa [Mysteries of Lisbon] (2010)
- Ballet aquatique (2011)
- La noche de enfrente [Night Across the Street] (2012)
- As Linhas de Torres [The Lines of Wellington] (2012) (conceived by Ruiz, completed by Valeria Sarmiento)
- Raoul Ruiz (1995). Poétique du cinéma. Dis Voir. ISBN 2-906571-37-7. (French).
- Raul Ruiz (1995). Poetics of Cinema 1: Miscellanies. Dis Voir. ISBN 2-906571-38-5. Translated by Brian Holmes.
- Raoul Ruiz; Benoît Peeters (2002). Le Transpatagonien. Impressions nouvelles. ISBN 2-906131-55-5. (French).
- Raoul Ruiz (2006). Poétique du cinéma 2. Dis Voir. ISBN 978-2-914563-27-7. (French).
- Raul Ruiz (2007). Poetics of Cinema 2. Dis Voir. ISBN 978-2-914563-25-3. Translated from the Spanish by Carlos Morreo.
- Raoul Ruiz (2008). A la poursuite de l’île au trésor. Dis Voir. ISBN 978-2-914563-39-0. (French). Translated into English as: Raul Ruiz (2008). In Pursuit of Treasure Island. Dis Voir. ISBN 978-2-914563-41-3.
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James Henry Kinmel Sangster was an English screenwriter and director, known for his work for horror film producers Hammer Film Productions, including scripts for The Curse of Frankenstein (the first British
horror movie to be shot in colour) and Dracula (US: Horror of Dracula).
(2 December 1927 – 19 August 2011)
Sangster originally worked as a production assistant at the studio, as well as assistant director, second unit director and production manager. After Hammer Films Productions’ success with The Quatermass Xperiment, Sangster was approached to write The Curse of Frankenstein,
to which he said, “I’m not a writer. I’m a production manager.”
According to Sangster, Hammer Films’ response was, “Well, you’ve come up
with a couple of ideas and if we like it, we’ll pay you. If we don’t
like it, we won’t pay you. You’re being paid as a production manager, so
you can’t complain.” He later turned to direction with The Horror of Frankenstein and Lust for a Vampire (both 1970) for the studio, but with far less success. His third (and last) film as director was 1972’s Fear in the Night, which resurrected the psychological woman-in-peril thriller Sangster had begun with his script for Taste of Fear in 1961. All three of these films featured actor Ralph Bates, one of Hammer’s best-known actors of the latter period of the company.
Sangster scripted and produced two films for Bette Davis, The Nanny (1965) and The Anniversary (1968).
Other scriptwriting credits included The Siege of Sidney Street (1960) which starred Donald Sinden and in which Sangster appeared as Winston Churchill.
He is survived by his third wife, the actress Mary Peach and by a son from an earlier marriage, Mark James Sangster  and two grandchildren, Claire and Ian Sangster.
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Vilem Sokol was a Czech-American conductor and professor of music at the University of Washington from 1948 to 1985,
where he taught violin, viola, conducting, as well as music
appreciation classes directed primarily toward non-music majors Vilem Sokol, American conductor and music professor, died from cancer at 96 .
(May 22, 1915 – August 19, 2011)
conductor of the Seattle Youth Symphony Orchestras from 1960 to 1988, and principal violist of the Seattle Symphony
from 1959 to 1963. He was the featured soloist with the Seattle
Symphony for subscription concerts held March 7 and 8, 1960, performing Harold in Italy by Hector Berlioz.
Sokol was raised in Ambridge, Pennsylvania. At the age of 15, he studied with Otakar Ševčík in Boston. He received a bachelor’s degree in music from Oberlin College in 1938, where he studied violin with Raymond Cerf, and studied for one year on scholarship with Jaroslav Kocián at the State Conservatory of Music in Prague. He studied under a fellowship grant at the Juilliard School in New York City.
Upon his return from Prague, he taught at Shorter College in Rome, Georgia
for two years. He returned in 1941 to Oberlin College to pursue
graduate work, but was drafted when the United States entered the Second World War. He served in Miami Beach, Florida, Lincoln, Nebraska and Biloxi, Mississippi.
Following his discharge in 1945, he returned to Oberlin College to
continue his graduate work. Before coming to Seattle, he taught at the University of Kentucky (1946–7), and the Kansas City Conservatory of Music (1947–8), which has been part of the University of Missouri–Kansas City since 1959.
Sokol was one of the first American teachers to meet Shinichi Suzuki and apply aspects of his teaching method.
On August 19, 2011, Sokol died, aged 96, in Seattle, Washington from cancer.
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(August 22, 1926 – May 15, 2011)
Flanigan, who was born in Greencastle, Indiana, was a respected trombonist, and also played bass guitar with the outfit for several decades, beginning on September 20, 1948, and sang the top part. After retiring from performing in 1992, Flanigan maintained the band’s name and was responsible for the group’s changing cast of performers.
Flanigan died of congestive heart failure at his home in Las Vegas, Nevada, on May 15, 2011, aged 84.